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    Default Adobe Photoshop Complete Course | Lecture 35

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    Now you just need to crop the picture. But first you need to address the problem that there is hardly any space above the motif. You solve that problem by enlarging the canvas. The canvas is the area where the picture ”rests”, and it can be enlarged. When you change the canvas size, he picure remains unchanged, but you get a larger background to work on.
    1. Select menu items Image --> Canvas Size…. Now you can see the picture area’s actual size in pixels (if you have settings as the ones we described on page 3). By us it is 625 by 483 pixels:

    2. You need to incease the canvas height. But the inrease has to be upward. So click on the bottom center button in the Anchor field. That causes the picture to be expanded upwards, as also is indicated by the arrows:

    3. Then enter the new height in the Height field; than can be 550 pixels:

    4. Then click OK. The picture has now been expanded to give more elbow room in the top; the new canvas i white, because it copies the background color.
    5. No choose the Crop Tool by pressing c:

    6. drag a suitable frame around the motif. As you see, the part of the picture that will be removed is shaded with a dark color.
    7. Drag in the frame edges until you are satisfied with the section. Finish by pressing Enter.
    8. Save a new version of the picture. Select File --> Save As..., and name the picture bath2.psd.
    The Crop Tool is incredibly practical. You just press c and then drag a frame around that part of the picture to be preserved. The rest is shielded and can be deleted by pressing Enter – it really can not be easier.
    If you have already made another selection, then you can also crop the picture from that. That is done with menu items Image --> Crop.
    But you can also use the the crop tool to easily expand the canvas. If you drag the frame beyond the picture edge, the canvas is actually expanded by the ”cropping”, when you press Enter:

    The Shield setting can in some situations be irritating, so it can be turned on and off. You can also change its parameters; by default it is a 75% covering black surface. The changes are made in the settings line:

    19. Introduction to masks

    In this and the following chapter you will work with Layer masks, which is an important tool in Photoshop.
    You see that the masks can mix different picture layers. Here comes four quite different exercises. Together they illustrate a small segment af the lage leeway, which the layer masks can give the creative picture processor.
    What is a mask?

    A mask is a special ”layer”, which you can place over a picture. The mask acts like a selection; it divides the picture in different areas. When the picture is masked, it can consist of three types of areas:
    · Areas that are hidden and thus masked against changes. Those areas are shown with black in the mask.
    · Areas that are visible and which can be changed. That is like a selection. These are shown with white in the mask.
    · Areas which can be partially changed. These areas are shown with gray tones. The lighter a masked area is, the stronger the change will be.
    The protected areas will remain unchanged, regardless of whatever else you use the mask for. But the unprotected areas can be treated in many different ways. The areas can be completely or partially transparent, so picture data from the underlying layers can ”look through”; that is called a layer mask.
    The special feature about masks is that they in themselves can be treated with filters and other tools. In that way the masks provide very broad room for creative picture processing. You can use all thee effects you desire, without having to change the actual picture data.

    Figure 40. A mask, which has the shape of a wine glass.
    Masks are a rather difficult subject – especially when its has to be explained! We can get in doubt ourselves – why is the mask black and not white there? Those kinds of questions can rumble around in your head if you try to understand it all. Therefore, our suggestion is: Try for yoourself to works with masks, do the exercises in this chapter. Then you will discover that masks are excellent tools, which actually are easy to use in daily work!
    Make the first mask

    Now you are going to see how a mask works. Follow this exercise, where we blend two pictures by using a layer mask.
    1. Open the image file calme.jpg, which you can get from the home page for this booklet.
    2. Doubleclick in the Background layer beam:

    3. Click on OK, so the layer is ”unlocked” and renamed to Layer 0.
    4. Now you have to insert a layer mask. Select menu items Layer --> Add Layer mask --> Hide All:

    5. The picture disappears! There are two possibilities when you insert a new layer mask. The mask is either white or black. This mask is black, and with that it hides all picture data. You can see the mask in the layers palette:

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