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    Manusmriti: The Laws of Manu
    1500 BC
    translated by G. Buhler
    1. The great sages approached Manu, who was seated
    with a collected mind, and, having duly worshipped him,
    spoke as follows: 2. 'Deign, divine one, to declare to us
    precisely and in due order the sacred laws of each of the
    (four chief) castes (varna) and of the intermediate ones.
    3. 'For thou, O Lord, alone knowest the purport, (i.e.)
    the rites, and the knowledge of the soul, (taught) in this
    whole ordinance of the Self-existent (Svayambhu), which
    is unknowable and unfathomable.' 4. He, whose power
    is measureless, being thus asked by the high-minded
    great sages, duly honoured them, and answered, 'Lis-
    ten!' 5. This (universe) existed in the shape of Darkness,
    unperceived, destitute of distinctive marks, unattain-
    able by reasoning, unknowable, wholly immersed, as it
    were, in deep sleep. 6. Then the divine Self-existent
    (Svayambhu, himself) indiscernible, (but) making (all)
    this, the great elements and the rest, discernible, ap-
    peared with irresistible (creative) power, dispelling the
    darkness. 7. He who can be perceived by the internal
    organ (alone), who is subtile, indiscernible, and eter-
    nal, who contains all created beings and is inconceiv-
    able, shone forth of his own (will). 8. He, desiring to
    produce beings of many kinds from his own body, rst
    with a thought created the waters, and placed his seed in
    them. 9. That (seed) became a golden egg, in brilliancy
    equal to the sun; in that (egg) he himself was born as
    Brahman, the progenitor of the whole world. 10. The
    waters are called narah, (for) the waters are, indeed,
    the o spring of Nara; as they were his rst residence
    (ayana), he thence is named Narayana. 11. From that
    ( rst) cause, which is indiscernible, eternal, and both
    real and unreal, was produced that male (Purusha), who
    is famed in this world (under the appellation of) Brah-
    man. 12. The divine one resided in that egg during a
    whole year, then he himself by his thought (alone) di-
    vided it into two halves; 13. And out of those two halves
    he formed heaven and earth, between them the middle
    sphere, the eight points of the horizon, and the eternal
    abode of the waters. 14. From himself (atmanah) he
    also drew forth the mind, which is both real and unreal,
    likewise from the mind egoism, which possesses the func-
    tion of self-consciousness (and is) lordly; 15. Moreover,
    the great one, the soul, and all (products) a ected by
    the three qualities, and, in their order, the ve organs
    which perceive the objects of sensation. 16. But, joining
    minute particles even of those six, which possess mea-
    sureless power, with particles of himself, he created all
    beings. 17. Because those six (kinds of) minute parti-
    cles, which form the (creator's) frame, enter (a-sri) these
    (creatures), therefore the wise call his frame sarira, (the
    body.) 18. That the great elements enter, together with
    their functions and the mind, through its minute parts
    the framer of all beings, the imperishable one. 19. But
    from minute body (-framing) particles of these seven
    very powerful Purushas springs this (world), the per-
    ishable from the imperishable. 20. Among them each
    succeeding (element) acquires the quality of the preced-
    ing one, and whatever place (in the sequence) each of
    them occupies, even so many qualities it is declared to
    possess. 21. But in the beginning he assigned their
    several names, actions, and conditions to all (created
    beings), even according to the words of the Veda. 22.
    He, the Lord, also created the class of the gods, who are
    endowed with life, and whose nature is action; and the
    subtile class of the Sadhyas, and the eternal sacri ce. 23.
    But from re, wind, and the sun he drew forth the three-
    fold eternal Veda, called Rik, Yagus, and Saman, for the
    due performance of the sacri ce. 24. Time and the di-
    visions of time, the lunar mansions and the planets, the
    rivers, the oceans, the mountains, plains, and uneven
    ground. 25. Austerity, speech, pleasure, desire, and
    anger, this whole creation he likewise produced, as he
    desired to call these beings into existence. 26. Moreover,
    in order to distinguish actions, he separated merit from
    demerit, and he caused the creatures to be a ected by
    the pairs (of opposites), such as pain and pleasure. 27.
    But with the minute perishable particles of the ve (el-
    ements) which have been mentioned, this whole (world)
    is framed in due order. 28. But to whatever course of
    action the Lord at rst appointed each (kind of beings),
    that alone it has spontaneously adopted in each succeed-
    ing creation. 29. Whatever he assigned to each at the
    ( rst) creation, noxiousness or harmlessness, gentleness
    or ferocity, virtue or sin, truth or falsehood, that clung
    (afterwards) spontaneously to it. 30. As at the change
    of the seasons each season of its own accord assumes its
    distinctive marks, even so corporeal beings (resume in
    new births) their (appointed) course of action. 31. But
    for the sake of the prosperity of the worlds he caused the
    Brahmana, the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and the Sudra to
    proceed from his mouth, his arms, his thighs, and his
    feet. 32. Dividing his own body, the Lord became half
    male and half female; with that (female) he produced
    Virag. 33. But know me, O most holy among the twice-
    born, to be the creator of this whole (world), whom that
    male, Virag, himself produced, having performed aus-
    terities. 34. Then I, desiring to produce created beings,
    performed very dicult austerities, and (thereby) called
    into existence ten great sages, lords of created beings, 35.
    Mariki, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Prake-
    tas, Vasishtha, Bhrigu, and Narada. 36. They created
    seven other Manus possessing great brilliancy, gods and
    classes of gods and great sages of measureless power,
    37. Yakshas (the servants of Kubera, the demons called)
    Rakshasas and Pisakas, Gandharvas (or musicians of the
    gods), Apsarases (the dancers of the gods), Asuras, (the
    snake-deities called) Nagas and Sarpas, (the bird-deities
    called) Suparnas and the several classes of the manes,
    38. Lightnings, thunderbolts and clouds, imperfect (ro-
    hita) and perfect rainbows, falling meteors, supernatu-
    ral noises, comets, and heavenly lights of many kinds, 39
    (Horse-faced) Kinnaras, monkeys, shes, birds of many
    kinds, cattle, deer, men, and carnivorous beasts with two
    rows of teeth, 40. Small and large worms and beetles,
    moths, lice,
    ies, bugs, all stinging and biting insects
    and the several kinds of immovable things. 41. Thus
    was this whole (creation), both the immovable and the
    movable, produced by those high-minded ones by means
    of austerities and at my command, (each being) accord-
    ing to (the results of) its actions. 42. But whatever act
    is stated (to belong) to (each of) those creatures here
    below, that I will truly declare to you, as well as their
    order in respect to birth. 43. Cattle, deer, carnivorous
    beasts with two rows of teeth, Rakshasas, Pisakas, and
    men are born from the womb. 44. From eggs are born
    birds, snakes, crocodiles, shes, tortoises, as well as sim-
    ilar terrestrial and aquatic (animals). 45. From hot
    moisture spring stinging and biting insects, lice,
    bugs, and all other (creatures) of that kind which are
    produced by heat. 46. All plants, propagated by seed
    or by slips, grow from shoots; annual plants (are those)
    which, bearing many
    owers and fruits, perish after the
    ripening of their fruit; 47. (Those trees) which bear fruit
    owers are called vanaspati (lords of the forest);
    but those which bear both
    owers and fruit are called
    vriksha. 48. But the various plants with many stalks,
    growing from one or several roots, the di erent kinds of
    grasses, the climbing plants and the creepers spring all
    from seed or from slips. 49. These (plants) which are
    surrounded by multiform Darkness, the result of their
    acts (in former existences), possess internal conscious-
    ness and experience pleasure and pain. 50. The (var-
    ious) conditions in this always terrible and constantly
    changing circle of births and deaths to which created
    beings are subject, are stated to begin with (that of)
    Brahman, and to end with (that of) these (just men-
    tioned immovable creatures). 51. When he whose power
    is incomprehensible, had thus produced the universe and
    men, he disappeared in himself, repeatedly suppressing
    one period by means of the other. 52. When that divine
    one wakes, then this world stirs; when he slumbers tran-
    quilly, then the universe sinks to sleep. 53. But when
    he reposes in calm sleep, the corporeal beings whose na-
    ture is action, desist from their actions and mind be-
    comes inert. 54. When they are absorbed all at once
    in that great soul, then he who is the soul of all beings
    sweetly slumbers, free from all care and occupation. 55.
    When this (soul) has entered darkness, it remains for
    a long time united with the organs (of sensation), but
    performs not its functions; it then leaves the corporeal
    frame. 56. When, being clothed with minute particles
    (only), it enters into vegetable or animal seed, it then
    assumes, united (with the ne body), a (new) corpo-
    real frame. 57. Thus he, the imperishable one, by (al-
    ternately) waking and slumbering, incessantly revivi es
    and destroys this whole movable and immovable (cre-
    ation). 58. But he having composed these Institutes
    (of the sacred law), himself taught them, according to
    the rule, to me alone in the beginning; next I (taught
    them) to Mariki and the other sages. 59. Bhrigu, here,
    will fully recite to you these Institutes; for that sage
    learned the whole in its entirety from me. 60. Then that
    great sage Bhrigu, being thus addressed by Manu, spoke,
    pleased in his heart, to all the sages, 'Listen!' 61. Six
    other high-minded, very powerful Manus, who belong to
    the race of this Manu, the descendant of the Self-existent
    (Svayambhu), and who have severally produced created
    beings, 62. (Are) Svarokisha, Auttami, Tamasa, Rai-
    vata, Kakshusha, possessing great lustre, and the son
    of Vivasvat. 63. These seven very glorious Manus, the
    rst among whom is Svayambhuva, produced and pro-
    tected this whole movable and immovable (creation),
    each during the period (allotted to him). 64. Eigh-
    teen nimeshas (twinklings of the eye, are one kashtha),
    thirty kashthas one kala, thirty kalas one muhurta, and
    as many (muhurtas) one day and night. 65. The sun
    divides days and nights, both human and divine, the
    night (being intended) for the repose of created beings
    and the day for exertion. 66. A month is a day and
    a night of the manes, but the division is according to
    fortnights. The dark (fortnight) is their day for active
    exertion, the bright (fortnight) their night for sleep. 67.
    A year is a day and a night of the gods; their division
    is (as follows): the half year during which the sun pro-
    gresses to the north will be the day, that during which
    it goes southwards the night.
    68. But hear now the brief (description of) the du-
    ration of a night and a day of Brahman and of the sev-
    eral ages (of the world, yuga) according to their order.
    69. They declare that the Krita age (consists of) four
    thousand years (of the gods); the twilight preceding it
    consists of as many hundreds, and the twilight follow-
    ing it of the same number. 70. In the other three ages
    with their twilights preceding and following, the thou-
    sands and hundreds are diminished by one (in each). 71.
    These twelve thousand (years) which thus have been just
    mentioned as the total of four (human) ages, are called
    one age of the gods. 72. But know that the sum of
    one thousand ages of the gods (makes) one day of Brah-
    man, and that his night has the same length. 73. Those
    (only, who) know that the holy day of Brahman, indeed,
    ends after (the completion of) one thousand ages (of the
    gods) and that his night lasts as long, (are really) men
    acquainted with (the length of) days and nights. 74. At
    the end of that day and night he who was asleep, awakes
    and, after awaking, creates mind, which is both real and
    unreal. 75. Mind, impelled by (Brahman's) desire to
    create, performs the work of creation by modifying it-
    self, thence ether is produced; they declare that sound is
    the quality of the latter. 76. But from ether, modifying
    itself, springs the pure, powerful wind, the vehicle of all
    perfumes; that is held to possess the quality of touch.
    77. Next from wind modifying itself, proceeds the bril-
    liant light, which illuminates and dispels darkness; that
    is declared to possess the quality of colour; 78. And
    from light, modifying itself, (is produced) water, pos-
    sessing the quality of taste, from water earth which has
    the quality of smell; such is the creation in the beginning.
    79. The before-mentioned age of the gods, (or) twelve
    thousand (of their years), being multiplied by seventy-
    one, (constitutes what) is here named the period of a
    Manu (Manvantara). 80. The Manvantaras, the cre-
    ations and destructions (of the world, are) numberless;
    sporting, as it were, Brahman repeats this again and
    again. 81. In the Krita age Dharma is four-footed and
    entire, and (so is) Truth; nor does any gain accrue to
    men by unrighteousness. 82. In the other (three ages),
    by reason of (unjust) gains (agama), Dharma is deprived
    successively of one foot, and through (the prevalence of)
    theft, falsehood, and fraud the merit (gained by men) is
    diminished by one fourth (in each). 83. (Men are) free
    from disease, accomplish all their aims, and live four
    hundred years in the Krita age, but in the Treta and (in
    each of) the succeeding (ages) their life is lessened by
    one quarter. 84. The life of mortals, mentioned in the
    Veda, the desired results of sacri cial rites and the (su-
    pernatural) power of embodied (spirits) are fruits pro-
    portioned among men according to (the character of)
    the age. 85. One set of duties (is prescribed) for men
    in the Krita age, di erent ones in the Treta and in the
    Dvapara, and (again) another (set) in the Kali, in a pro-
    portion as (those) ages decrease in length. 86. In the
    Krita age the chief (virtue) is declared to be (the perfor-
    mance of) austerities, in the Treta (divine) knowledge,
    in the Dvapara (the performance of) sacri ces, in the
    Kali liberality alone. 87. But in order to protect this
    universe He, the most resplendent one, assigned sepa-
    rate (duties and) occupations to those who sprang from
    his mouth, arms, thighs, and feet. 88. To Brahmanas
    he assigned teaching and studying (the Veda), sacri cing
    for their own bene t and for others, giving and accepting
    (of alms). 89. The Kshatriya he commanded to protect
    the people, to bestow gifts, to o er sacri ces, to study
    (the Veda), and to abstain from attaching himself to sen-
    sual pleasures; 90. The Vaisya to tend cattle, to bestow
    gifts, to o er sacri ces, to study (the Veda), to trade, to
    lend money, and to cultivate land. 91. One occupation
    only the lord prescribed to the Sudra, to serve meekly
    even these (other) three castes. 92. Man is stated to
    be purer above the navel (than below); hence the Self-
    existent (Svayambhu) has declared the purest (part) of
    him (to be) his mouth. 93. As the Brahmana sprang
    from (Brahman's) mouth, as he was the rst-born, and
    as he possesses the Veda, he is by right the lord of this
    whole creation. 94. For the Self-existent (Svayambhu),
    having performed austerities, produced him rst from
    his own mouth, in order that the o erings might be
    conveyed to the gods and manes and that this universe
    might be preserved. 95. What created being can sur-
    pass him, through whose mouth the gods continually
    consume the sacri cial viands and the manes the o er-
    ings to the dead? 96. Of created beings the most ex-
    cellent are said to be those which are animated; of the
    animated, those which subsist by intelligence; of the in-
    telligent, mankind; and of men, the Brahmanas; 97. Of
    Brahmanas, those learned (in the Veda); of the learned,
    those who recognise (the necessity and the manner of
    performing the prescribed duties); of those who possess
    this knowledge, those who perform them; of the per-
    formers, those who know the Brahman. 98. The very
    birth of a Brahmana is an eternal incarnation of the sa-
    cred law; for he is born to (ful l) the sacred law, and
    becomes one with Brahman. 99. A Brahmana, com-
    ing into existence, is born as the highest on earth, the
    lord of all created beings, for the protection of the trea-
    sury of the law. 100. Whatever exists in the world
    is, the property of the Brahmana; on account of the
    excellence of his origin The Brahmana is, indeed, en-
    titled to all. 101. The Brahmana eats but his own
    food, wears but his own apparel, bestows but his own in
    alms; other mortals subsist through the benevolence of
    the Brahmana. 102. In order to clearly settle his duties
    those of the other (castes) according to their order, wise
    Manu sprung from the Self-existent, composed these In-
    stitutes (of the sacred Law). 103. A learned Brahmana
    must carefully study them, and he must duly instruct
    his pupils in them, but nobody else (shall do it). 104. A
    Brahmana who studies these Institutes (and) faithfully
    ful ls the duties (prescribed therein), is never tainted
    by sins, arising from thoughts, words, or deeds. 105. He
    sancti es any company (which he may enter), seven an-
    cestors and seven descendants, and he alone deserves (to
    possess) this whole earth. 106. (To study) this (work)
    is the best means of securing welfare, it increases un-
    derstanding, it procures fame and long life, it (leads to)
    supreme bliss. 107. In this (work) the sacred law has
    been fully stated as well as the good and bad qualities
    of (human) actions and the immemorial rule of conduct,
    (to be followed) by all the four castes (varna). 108. The
    rule of conduct is transcendent law, whether it be taught
    in the revealed texts or in the sacred tradition; hence a
    twice-born man who possesses regard for himself, should
    be always careful to (follow) it. 109. A Brahmana who
    departs from the rule of conduct, does not reap the fruit
    of the Veda, but he who duly follows it, will obtain the
    full reward. 110. The sages who saw that the sacred
    law is thus grounded on the rule of conduct, have taken
    good conduct to be the most excellent root of all aus-
    terity. 111. The creation of the universe, the rule of the
    sacraments, the ordinances of studentship, and the re-
    spectful behaviour (towards Gurus), the most excellent
    rule of bathing (on return from the teacher's house), 112.
    (The law of) marriage and the description of the (var-
    ious) marriage-rites, the regulations for the great sacri-
    ces and the eternal rule of the funeral sacri ces, 113.
    The description of the modes of (gaining) subsistence
    and the duties of a Snataka, (the rules regarding) law-
    ful and forbidden food, the puri cation of men and of
    things, 114. The laws concerning women, (the law) of
    hermits, (the manner of gaining) nal emancipation and
    (of) renouncing the world, the whole duty of a king and
    the manner of deciding lawsuits, 115. The rules for the
    examination of witnesses, the laws concerning husband
    and wife, the law of (inheritance and) division, (the law
    concerning) gambling and the removal of (men nocuous
    like) thorns, 116. (The law concerning) the behaviour
    of Vaisyas and Sudras, the origin of the mixed castes,
    the law for all castes in times of distress and the law of
    penances, 117. The threefold course of transmigrations,
    the result of (good or bad) actions, (the manner of at-
    taining) supreme bliss and the examination of the good
    and bad qualities of actions, 118. The primeval laws of
    countries, of castes (gati), of families, and the rules con-
    cerning heretics and companies (of traders and the like)-
    (all that) Manu has declared in these Institutes. 119. As
    Manu, in reply to my questions, formerly promulgated
    these Institutes, even so learn ye also the (whole work)
    from me.
    1. Learn that sacred law which is followed by men
    learned (in the Veda) and assented to in their hearts
    by the virtuous, who are ever exempt from hatred and
    inordinate a ection. 2. To act solely from a desire for
    rewards is not laudable, yet an exemption from that de-
    sire is not (to be found) in this (world): for on (that)
    desire is grounded the study of the Veda and the perfor-
    mance of the actions, prescribed by the Veda. 3. The
    desire (for rewards), indeed, has its root in the concep-
    tion that an act can yield them, and in consequence
    of (that) conception sacri ces are performed; vows and
    the laws prescribing restraints are all stated to be kept
    through the idea that they will bear fruit. 4. Not a sin-
    gle act here (below) appears ever to be done by a man
    free from desire; for whatever (man) does, it is (the re-
    sult of) the impulse of desire. 5. He who persists in
    discharging these (-prescribed duties-) in the right man-
    ner, reaches the deathless state and even in this (life)
    obtains (the ful lment of) all the desires that he may
    have conceived. 6. The whole Veda is the ( rst) source
    of the sacred law, next the tradition and the virtuous
    conduct of those who know the (Veda further), also the
    customs of holy men, and ( nally) self-satisfaction. 7.
    Whatever law has been ordained for any (person) by
    Manu, that has been fully declared in the Veda: for that
    (sage was) omniscient. 8. But a learned man after fully
    scrutinising all this with the eye of knowledge, should,
    in accordance with the authority of the revealed texts,
    be intent on (the performance of) his duties. 9. For that
    man who obeys the law prescribed in the revealed texts
    and in the sacred tradition, gains fame in this (world)
    and after death unsurpassable bliss. 10. But by Sruti
    (revelation) is meant the Veda, and by Smriti (tradition)
    the Institutes of the sacred law: those two must not be
    called into question in any matter, since from those two
    the sacred law shone forth. 11. Every twice-born man,
    who, relying on the Institutes of dialectics, treats with
    contempt those two sources (of the law), must be cast
    out by the virtuous, as an atheist and a scorner of the
    Veda. 12. The Veda, the sacred tradition, the customs
    of virtuous men, and one's own pleasure, they declare to
    be visibly the fourfold means of de ning the sacred law.
    13. The knowledge of the sacred law is prescribed for
    those who are not given to the acquisition of wealth and
    to the grati cation of their desires; to those who seek
    the knowledge of the sacred law the supreme authority
    is the revelation (Sruti). 14. But when two sacred texts
    (Sruti) are con
    icting, both are held to be law; for both
    are pronounced by the wise (to be) valid law. 15. (Thus)
    the (Agnihotra) sacri ce may be (optionally) performed,
    at any time after the sun has risen, before he has risen,
    or when neither sun nor stars are visible; that (is de-
    clared) by Vedic texts. 16. Know that he for whom
    (the performance of) the ceremonies beginning with the
    rite of impregnation (Garbhadhana) and ending with the
    funeral rite (Antyeshti) is prescribed, while sacred for-
    mulas are being recited, is entitled (to study) these In-
    stitutes, but no other man whatsoever. 17. That land,
    created by the gods, which lies between the two divine
    rivers Sarasvati and Drishadvati, the (sages) call Brah-
    mavarta. 18. The custom handed down in regular suc-
    cession (since time immemorial) among the (four chief)
    castes (varna) and the mixed (races) of that country, is
    called the conduct of virtuous men. 19. The plain of
    the Kurus, the (country of the) Matsyas, Pankalas, and
    Surasenakas, these (form), indeed, the country of the
    Brahmarshis (Brahmanical sages, which ranks) immedi-
    ately after Brahmavarta. 20. From a Brahmana, born in
    that country, let all men on earth learn their several us-
    ages. 21. That (country) which (lies) between the Hima-
    vat and the Vindhya (mountains) to the east of Prayaga
    and to the west of Vinasana (the place where the river
    Sarasvati disappears) is called Madhyadesa (the central
    region). 22. But (the tract) between those two moun-
    tains (just mentioned), which (extends) as far as the
    eastern and the western oceans, the wise call Aryavarta
    (the country of the Aryans). 23. That land where the
    black antelope naturally roams, one must know to be
    t for the performance of sacri ces; (the tract) di erent
    from that (is) the country of the Mlekkhas (barbarians).
    24. Let twice-born men seek to dwell in those (above-
    mentioned countries); but a Sudra, distressed for subsis-
    tence, may reside anywhere.
    25. Thus has the origin of the sacred law been suc-
    cinctly described to you and the origin of this universe;
    learn (now) the duties of the castes (varna). 26. With
    holy rites, prescribed by the Veda, must the ceremony on
    conception and other sacraments be performed for twice-
    born men, which sanctify the body and purify (from sin)
    in this (life) and after death. 27. By burnt oblations
    during (the mother's) pregnancy, by the Gatakarman
    (the ceremony after birth), the Kauda (tonsure), and
    the Maungibandhana (the tying of the sacred girdle of
    Munga grass) is the taint, derived from both parents,
    removed from twice-born men. 28. By the study of
    the Veda, by vows, by burnt oblations, by (the recita-
    tion of) sacred texts, by the (acquisition of the) three-
    fold sacred science, by o ering (to the gods, Rishis, and
    manes), by (the procreation of) sons, by the great sac-
    ri ces, and by (Srauta) rites this (human) body is made
    t for (union with) Brahman. 29. Before the navel-
    string is cut, the Gatakarman (birth-rite) must be per-
    formed for a male (child); and while sacred formulas
    are being recited, he must be fed with gold, honey, and
    butter. 30. But let (the father perform or) cause to
    be performed the Namadheya (the rite of naming the
    child), on the tenth or twelfth (day after birth), or on a
    lucky lunar day, in a lucky muhurta, under an auspicious
    constellation. 31. Let (the rst part of) a Brahmana's
    name (denote something) auspicious, a Kshatriya's be
    connected with power, and a Vaisya's with wealth, but
    a Sudra's (express something) contemptible. 32. (The
    second part of) a Brahmana's (name) shall be (a word)
    implying happiness, of a Kshatriya's (a word) implying
    protection, of a Vaisya's (a term) expressive of thriv-
    ing, and of a Sudra's (an expression) denoting service.
    33. The names of women should be easy to pronounce,
    not imply anything dreadful, possess a plain meaning,
    be pleasing and auspicious, end in long vowels, and con-
    tain a word of benediction. 34. In the fourth month
    the Nishkramana (the rst leaving of the house) of the
    child should be performed, in the sixth month the An-
    naprasana ( rst feeding with rice), and optionally (any
    other) auspicious ceremony required by (the custom of)
    the family. 35. According to the teaching of the revealed
    texts, the Kudakarman (tonsure) must be performed, for
    the sake of spiritual merit, by all twice-born men in the
    rst or third year. 36. In the eighth year after concep-
    tion, one should perform the initiation (upanayana) of
    a Brahmana, in the eleventh after conception (that) of
    a Kshatriya, but in the twelfth that of a Vaisya. 37.
    (The initiation) of a Brahmana who desires pro ciency
    in sacred learning should take place in the fth (year
    after conception), (that) of a Kshatriya who wishes to
    become powerful in the sixth, (and that) of a Vaisya who
    longs for (success in his) business in the eighth. 38. The
    (time for the) Savitri (initiation) of a Brahmana does
    not pass until the completion of the sixteenth year (af-
    ter conception), of a Kshatriya until the completion of
    the twenty-second, and of a Vaisya until the completion
    of the twenty-fourth. 39. After those (periods men of)
    these three (castes) who have not received the sacrament
    at the proper time, become Vratyas (outcasts), excluded
    from the Savitri (initiation) and despised by the Aryans.
    40. With such men, if they have not been puri ed ac-
    cording to the rule, let no Brahmana ever, even in times
    of distress, form a connexion either through the Veda or
    by marriage. 41. Let students, according to the order
    (of their castes), wear (as upper dresses) the skins of
    black antelopes, spotted deer, and he-goats, and (lower
    garments) made of hemp,
    ax or wool. 42. The gir-
    dle of a Brahmana shall consist of a of a triple cord of
    Munga grass, smooth and soft; (that) of a Kshatriya, of
    a bowstring, made of Murva bres; (that) of a Vaisya,
    of hempen threads. 43. If Munga grass (and so forth)
    be not procurable, (the girdles) may be made of Kusa,
    Asmantaka, and Balbaga ( bres), with a single three-
    fold knot, or with three or ve (knots according to the
    custom of the family). 44. The sacri cial string of a
    Brahmana shall be made of cotton, (shall be) twisted
    to the right, (and consist) of three threads, that of a
    Kshatriya of hempen threads, (and) that of a Vaisya
    of woollen threads. 45. A Brahmana shall (carry), ac-
    cording to the sacred law, a sta of Bilva or Palasa; a
    Kshatriya, of Vata or Khadira; (and) a Vaisya, of Pilu
    or Udumbara. 46. The sta of a Brahmana shall be
    made of such length as to reach the end of his hair; that
    of a Kshatriya, to reach his forehead; (and) that of a
    Vaisya, to reach (the tip of his) nose. 47. Let all the
    staves be straight, without a blemish, handsome to look
    at, not likely to terrify men, with their bark perfect,
    unhurt by re. 48. Having taken a sta according to
    his choice, having worshipped the sun and walked round
    the re, turning his right hand towards it, (the student)
    should beg alms according to the prescribed rule. 49. An
    initiated Brahmana should beg, beginning (his request
    with the word) lady (bhavati); a Kshatriya, placing (the
    word) lady in the middle, but a Vaisya, placing it at the
    end (of the formula). 50. Let him rst beg food of his
    mother, or of his sister, or of his own maternal aunt, or
    of (some other) female who will not disgrace him (by a
    refusal). 51. Having collected as much food as is re-
    quired (from several persons), and having announced it
    without guile to his teacher, let him eat, turning his face
    towards the east, and having puri ed himself by sipping
    water. 52. (His meal will procure) long life, if he eats
    facing the east; fame, if he turns to the south; prosper-
    ity, if he turns to the west; truthfulness, if he faces the
    east. 53. Let a twice-born man always eat his food with
    concentrated mind, after performing an ablution; and
    after he has eaten, let him duly cleanse himself with wa-
    ter and sprinkle the cavities (of his head). 54. Let him
    always worship his food, and eat it without contempt;
    when he sees it, let him rejoice, show a pleased face, and
    pray that he may always obtain it. 55. Food, that is al-
    ways worshipped, gives strength and manly vigour; but
    eaten irreverently, it destroys them both. 56. Let him
    not give to any man what he leaves, and beware of eat-
    ing between (the two meal-times); let him not over-eat
    himself, nor go anywhere without having puri ed him-
    self (after his meal). 57. Excessive eating is prejudicial
    to health, to fame, and to (bliss in) heaven; it prevents
    (the acquisition of) spiritual merit, and is odious among
    men; one ought, for these reasons, to avoid it carefully.
    58. Let a Brahmana always sip water out of the part
    of the hand (tirtha) sacred to Brahman, or out of that
    sacred to Ka (Pragapati), or out of (that) sacred to the
    gods, never out of that sacred to the manes. 59. They
    call (the part) at the root of the thumb the tirtha sacred
    to Brahman, that at the root of the (little) nger (the
    tirtha) sacred to Ka (Pragapati), (that) at the tips (of
    the ngers, the tirtha) sacred to the gods, and that below
    (between the index and the thumb, the tirtha) sacred to
    the manes. 60. Let him rst sip water thrice; next twice
    wipe his mouth; and, lastly, touch with water the cavi-
    ties (of the head), (the seat of) the soul and the head.
    61. He who knows the sacred law and seeks purity shall
    always perform the rite of sipping with water neither hot
    nor frothy, with the (prescribed) tirtha, in a lonely place,
    and turning to the east or to the north. 62. A Brahmana
    is puri ed by water that reaches his heart, a Kshatriya
    by water reaching his throat, a Vaisya by water taken
    into his mouth, (and) a Sudra by water touched with the
    extremity (of his lips). 63. A twice-born man is called
    upavitin when his right arm is raised (and the sacri -
    cial string or the dress, passed under it, rests on the left
    shoulder); (when his) left (arm) is raised (and the string,
    or the dress, passed under it, rests on the right shoul-
    der, he is called) prakinavitin; and nivitin when it hangs
    down (straight) from the neck. 64. His girdle, the skin
    (which serves as his upper garment), his sta , his sac-
    ri cial thread, (and) his water-pot he must throw into
    water, when they have been damaged, and take others,
    reciting sacred formulas. 65. (The ceremony called) Ke-
    santa (clipping the hair) is ordained for a Brahmana in
    the sixteenth year (from conception); for a Kshatriya, in
    the twenty-second; and for a Vaisya, two (years) later
    than that. 66. This whole series (of ceremonies) must
    be performed for females (also), in order to sanctify the
    body, at the proper time and in the proper order, but
    without (the recitation of) sacred texts. 67. The nup-
    tial ceremony is stated to be the Vedic sacrament for
    women (and to be equal to the initiation), serving the
    husband (equivalent to) the residence in (the house of
    the) teacher, and the household duties (the same) as the
    (daily) worship of the sacred re.
    68. Thus has been described the rule for the initia-
    tion of the twice-born, which indicates a (new) birth, and
    sancti es; learn (now) to what duties they must after-
    wards apply themselves. 69. Having performed the (rite
    of) initiation, the teacher must rst instruct the (pupil)
    in (the rules of) personal puri cation, of conduct, of the
    re-worship, and of the twilight devotions. 70. But (a
    student) who is about to begin the Study (of the Veda),
    shall receive instruction, after he has sipped water in
    accordance with the Institutes (of the sacred law), has
    made the Brahmangali, (has put on) a clean dress, and
    has brought his organs under due control. 71. At the be-
    ginning and at the end of (a lesson in the) Veda he must
    always clasp both the feet of his teacher, (and) he must
    study, joining his hands; that is called the Brahmangali
    (joining the palms for the sake of the Veda). 72. With
    crossed hands he must clasp (the feet) of the teacher,
    and touch the left (foot) with his left (hand), the right
    (foot) with his right (hand). 73. But to him who is
    about to begin studying, the teacher always unwearied,
    must say: Ho, recite! He shall leave o (when the teacher
    says): Let a stoppage take place! 74. Let him always
    pronounce the syllable Om at the beginning and at the
    end of (a lesson in) the Veda; (for) unless the syllable
    Om precede (the lesson) will slip away (from him), and
    unless it follow it will fade away. 75. Seated on (blades
    of Kusa grass) with their points to the east, puri ed by
    Pavitras (blades of Kusa grass), and sancti ed by three
    suppressions of the breath (Pranayama), he is worthy (to
    pronounce) the syllable Om. 76. Pragapati (the lord of
    creatures) milked out (as it were) from the three Vedas
    the sounds A, U, and M, and (the Vyahritis) Bhuh, Bhu-
    vah, Svah. 77. Moreover from the three Vedas Praga-
    pati, who dwells in the highest heaven (Parameshthin),
    milked out (as it were) that Rik-verse, sacred to Savitri
    (Savitri), which begins with the word tad, one foot from
    each. 78. A Brahmana, learned in the Veda, who recites
    during both twilights that syllable and that (verse), pre-
    ceded by the Vyahritis, gains the (whole) merit which
    (the recitation of) the Vedas confers. 79. A twice-born
    man who (daily) repeats those three one thousand times
    outside (the village), will be freed after a month even
    from great guilt, as a snake from its slough. 80. The
    Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya who neglect
    (the recitation of) that Rik-verse and the timely (perfor-
    mance of the) rites (prescribed for) them, will be blamed
    among virtuous men. 81. Know that the three imperish-
    able Mahavyahritis, preceded by the syllable Om, and
    (followed) by the three-footed Savitri are the portal of
    the Veda and the gate leading (to union with) Brahman.
    82. He who daily recites that (verse), untired, during
    three years, will enter (after death) the highest Brah-
    man, move as free as air, and assume an ethereal form.
    83. The monosyllable (Om) is the highest Brahman,
    (three) suppressions of the breath are the best (form
    of) austerity, but nothing surpasses the Savitri truthful-
    ness is better than silence. 84. All rites ordained in the
    Veda, burnt oblations and (other) sacri ces, pass away;
    but know that the syllable (Om) is imperishable, and
    (it is) Brahman, (and) the Lord of creatures (Pragap-
    ati). 85. An o ering, consisting of muttered prayers,
    is ten times more ecacious than a sacri ce performed
    according to the rules (of the Veda); a (prayer) which is
    inaudible (to others) surpasses it a hundred times, and
    the mental (recitation of sacred texts) a thousand times.
    86. The four Pakayagnas and those sacri ces which are
    enjoined by the rules (of the Veda) are all together not
    equal in value to a sixteenth part of the sacri ce consist-
    ing of muttered prayers. 87. But, undoubtedly, a Brah-
    mana reaches the highest goal bymuttering prayers only;
    (whether) he perform other (rites) or neglect them, he
    who befriends (all creatures) is declared (to be) a (true)
    Brahmana. 88. A wise man should strive to restrain his
    organs which run wild among alluring sensual objects,
    like a charioteer his horses.
    89. Those eleven organs which former sages have
    named, I will properly (and) precisely enumerate in due
    order, 90. (Viz.) the ear, the skin, the eyes, the tongue,
    and the nose as the fth, the anus, the organ of genera-
    tion, hands and feet, and the (organ of) speech, named
    as the tenth. 91. Five of them, the ear and the rest
    according to their order, they call organs of sense, and
    ve of them, the anus and the rest, organs of action. 92.
    Know that the internal organ (manas) is the eleventh,
    which by its quality belongs to both (sets); when that
    has been subdued, both those sets of ve have been con-
    quered. 93. Through the attachment of his organs (to
    sensual pleasure) a man doubtlessly will incur guilt; but
    if he keep them under complete control, he will obtain
    success (in gaining all his aims). 94. Desire is never ex-
    tinguished by the enjoyment of desired objects; it only
    grows stronger like a re (fed) with clari ed butter. 95.
    If one man should obtain all those (sensual enjoyments)
    and another should renounce them all, the renunciation
    of all pleasure is far better than the attainment of them.
    96. Those (organs) which are strongly attached to sen-
    sual pleasures, cannot so e ectually be restrained by ab-
    stinence (from enjoyments) as by a constant (pursuit of
    true) knowledge. 97. Neither (the study of) the Vedas,
    nor liberality, nor sacri ces, nor any (self-imposed) re-
    straint, nor austerities, ever procure the attainment (of
    rewards) to a man whose heart is contaminated (by sen-
    suality). 98. That man may be considered to have (re-
    ally) subdued his organs, who on hearing and touching
    and seeing, on tasting and smelling (anything) neither
    rejoices nor repines. 99. But when one among all the or-
    gans slips away (from control), thereby (man's) wisdom
    slips away from him, even as the water (
    ows) through
    the one (open) foot of a (water-carrier's) skin. 100. If he
    keeps all the (ten) organs as well as the mind in subjec-
    tion, he may gain all his aims, without reducing his body
    by (the practice) of Yoga. 101. Let him stand during the
    morning twilight,muttering the Savitri until the sun ap-
    pears, but (let him recite it), seated, in the evening until
    the constellations can be seen distinctly. 102. He who
    stands during the morning twilight muttering (the Sav-
    itri), removes the guilt contracted during the (previous)
    night; but he who (recites it), seated, in the evening, de-
    stroys the sin he committed during the day. 103. But he
    who does not (worship) standing in the morning, nor sit-
    ting in the evening, shall be excluded, just like a Sudra,
    from all the duties and rights of an Aryan. 104. He who
    (desires to) perform the ceremony (of the) daily (recita-
    tion), may even recite the Savitri near water, retiring
    into the forest, controlling his organs and concentrating
    his mind. 105. Both when (one studies) the supple-
    mentary treatises of the Veda, and when (one recites)
    the daily portion of the Veda, no regard need be paid
    to forbidden days, likewise when (one repeats) the sa-
    cred texts required for a burnt oblation. 106. There
    are no forbidden days for the daily recitation, since that
    is declared to be a Brahmasattra (an everlasting sac-
    ri ce o ered to Brahman); at that the Veda takes the
    place of the burnt oblations, and it is meritorious (even),
    when (natural phenomena, requiring) a cessation of the
    Veda-study, take the place of the exclamation Vashat.
    107. For him who, being pure and controlling his or-
    gans, during a year daily recites the Veda according to
    the rule, that (daily recitation) will ever cause sweet and
    sour milk, clari ed butter and honey to
    ow. 108. Let
    an Aryan who has been initiated, (daily) o er fuel in the
    sacred re, beg food, sleep on the ground and do what
    is bene cial to this teacher, until (he performs the cer-
    emony of) Samavartana (on returning home). 109. Ac-
    cording to the sacred law the (following) ten (persons,
    viz.) the teacher's son, one who desires to do service, one
    who imparts knowledge, one who is intent on ful lling
    the law, one who is pure, a person connected by mar-
    riage or friendship, one who possesses (mental) ability,
    one who makes presents of money, one who is honest,
    and a relative, may be instructed (in the Veda). 110.
    Unless one be asked, one must not explain (anything) to
    anybody, nor (must one answer) a person who asks im-
    properly; let a wise man, though he knows (the answer),
    behave among men as (if he were) an idiot. 111. Of the
    two persons, him who illegally explains (anything), and
    him who illegally asks (a question), one (or both) will
    die or incur (the other's) enmity. 112. Where merit and
    wealth are not (obtained by teaching) nor (at least) due
    obedience, in such (soil) sacred knowledge must not be
    sown, just as good seed (must) not (be thrown) on bar-
    ren land. 113. Even in times of dire distress a teacher
    of the Veda should rather die with his knowledge than
    sow it in barren soil. 114. Sacred Learning approached a
    Brahmana and said to him: 'I am thy treasure, preserve
    me, deliver me not to a scorner; so (preserved) I shall be-
    come supremely strong.' 115. 'But deliver me, as to the
    keeper of thy treasure, to a Brahmana whom thou shalt
    know to be pure, of subdued senses, chaste and atten-
    tive.' 116. But he who acquires without permission the
    Veda from one who recites it, incurs the guilt of steal-
    ing the Veda, and shall sink into hell. 117. (A student)
    shall rst reverentially salute that (teacher) from whom
    he receives (knowledge), referring to worldly a airs, to
    the Veda, or to the Brahman. 118. A Brahmana who
    completely governs himself, though he know the Savitri
    only, is better than he who knows the three Vedas, (but)
    does not control himself, eats all (sorts of) food, and sells
    all (sorts of goods). 119. One must not sit down on a
    couch or seat which a superior occupies; and he who oc-
    cupies a couch or seat shall rise to meet a (superior),
    and (afterwards) salute him. 120. For the vital airs of
    a young man mount upwards to leave his body when an
    elder approaches; but by rising to meet him and salut-
    ing he recovers them. 121. He who habitually salutes
    and constantly pays reverence to the aged obtains an in-
    crease of four (things), (viz.) length of life, knowledge,
    fame, (and) strength. 122. After the (word of) saluta-
    tion, a Brahmana who greets an elder must pronounce
    his name, saying, 'I am N. N.' 123. To those (persons)
    who, when a name is pronounced, do not understand
    (the meaning of) the salutation, a wise man should say,
    'It is I;' and (he should address) in the same manner all
    women. 124. In saluting he should pronounce after his
    name the word bhoh; for the sages have declared that
    the nature of bhoh is the same as that of (all proper)
    names. 125. A Brahmana should thus be saluted in re-
    turn, 'May'st thou be long-lived, O gentle one!' and the
    vowel 'a' must be added at the end of the name (of the
    person addressed), the syllable preceding it being drawn
    out to the length of three moras. 126. A Brahmana who
    does not know the form of returning a salutation, must
    not be saluted by a learned man; as a Sudra, even so is
    he. 127. Let him ask a Brahmana, on meeting him, af-
    ter (his health, with the word) kusala, a Kshatriya (with
    the word) anamaya, a Vaisya (with the word) kshema,
    and a Sudra (with the word) anarogya. 128. He who has
    been initiated (to perform a Srauta sacri ce) must not
    be addressed by his name, even though he be a younger
    man; he who knows the sacred law must use in speaking
    to such (a man the particle) bhoh and (the pronoun)
    bhavat (your worship). 129. But to a female who is the
    wife of another man, and not a blood-relation, he must
    say, 'Lady' (bhavati) or 'Beloved sister!' 130. To his
    maternal and paternal uncles, fathers-in-law, ociating
    priests, (and other) venerable persons, he must say, 'I
    am N. N.,' and rise (to meet them), even though they
    be younger (than himself). 131. A maternal aunt, the
    wife of a maternal uncle, a mother-in-law, and a pater-
    nal aunt must be honoured like the wife of one's teacher;
    they are equal to the wife of one's teacher. 132. (The
    feet of the) wife of one's brother, if she be of the same
    caste (varna), must be clasped every day; but (the feet
    of) wives of (other) paternal and maternal relatives need
    only be embraced on one's return from a journey. 133.
    Towards a sister of one's father and of one's mother,
    and towards one's own elder sister, one must behave as
    towards one's mother; (but) the mother is more vener-
    able than they. 134. Fellow-citizens are called friends
    (and equals though one be) ten years (older than the
    other), men practising (the same) ne art (though one
    be) ve years (older than the other), Srotriyas (though)
    three years (intervene between their ages), but blood-
    relations only (if the) di erence of age be very small.
    135. Know that a Brahmana of ten years and Kshatriya
    of a hundred years stand to each other in the relation of
    father and son; but between those two the Brahmana is
    the father. 136. Wealth, kindred, age, (the due perfor-
    mance of) rites, and, fthly, sacred learning are titles to
    respect; but each later-named (cause) is more weighty
    (than the preceding ones). 137. Whatever man of the
    three (highest) castes possesses most of those ve, both
    in number and degree, that man is worthy of honour
    among them; and (so is) also a Sudra who has entered
    the tenth (decade of his life). 138. Way must be made
    for a man in a carriage, for one who is above ninety
    years old, for one diseased, for the carrier of a burden,
    for a woman, for a Snataka, for the king, and for a bride-
    groom. 139. Among all those, if they meet (at one time),
    a Snataka and the king must be (most) honoured; and
    if the king and a Snataka (meet), the latter receives re-
    spect from the king. 140. They call that Brahmana who
    initiates a pupil and teaches him the Veda together with
    the Kalpa and the Rahasyas, the teacher (akarya, of the
    latter). 141. But he who for his livelihood teaches a
    portion only of the Veda, or also the Angas of the Veda,
    is called the sub-teacher (upadhyaya). 142. That Brah-
    mana, who performs in accordance with the rules (of
    the Veda) the rites, the Garbhadhana (conception-rite),
    and so forth, and gives food (to the child), is called the
    Guru (the venerable one). 143. He who, being (duly)
    chosen (for the purpose), performs the Agnyadheya, the
    Pakayagnas, (and) the (Srauta) sacri ces, such as the
    Agnishtoma (for another man), is called (his) ociating
    priest. 144. That (man) who truthfully lls both his
    ears with the Veda, (the pupil) shall consider as his fa-
    ther and mother; he must never o end him. 145. The
    teacher (akarya) is ten times more venerable than a sub-
    teacher (upadhyaya), the father a hundred times more
    than the teacher, but the mother a thousand times more
    than the father. 146. Of him who gives natural birth and
    him who gives (the knowledge of) the Veda, the giver of
    the Veda is the more venerable father; for the birth for
    the sake of the Veda (ensures) eternal (rewards) both in
    this (life) and after death. 147. Let him consider that
    (he received) a (mere animal) existence, when his par-
    ents begat him through mutual a ection, and when he
    was born from the womb (of his mother). 148. But that
    birth which a teacher acquainted with the whole Veda,
    in accordance with the law, procures for him through
    the Savitri, is real, exempt from age and death. 149.
    (The pupil) must know that that man also who bene ts
    him by (instruction in) the Veda, be it little or much, is
    called in these (Institutes) his Guru, in consequence of
    that bene t (conferred by instruction in) the Veda. 150.
    That Brahmana who is the giver of the birth for the sake
    of the Veda and the teacher of the prescribed duties be-
    comes by law the father of an aged man, even though he
    himself be a child. 151. Young Kavi, the son of Angiras,
    taught his (relatives who were old enough to be) fathers,
    and, as he excelled them in (sacred) knowledge, he called
    them 'Little sons.' 152. They, moved with resentment,
    asked the gods concerning that matter, and the gods,
    having assembled, answered, 'The child has addressed
    you properly.' 153. 'For (a man) destitute of (sacred)
    knowledge is indeed a child, and he who teaches him
    the Veda is his father; for (the sages) have always said
    "child" to an ignorant man, and "father" to a teacher
    of the Veda.' 154. Neither through years, nor through
    white (hairs), nor through wealth, nor through (power-
    ful) kinsmen (comes greatness). The sages have made
    this law, 'He who has learnt the Veda together with the
    Angas (Anukana) is (considered) great by us.' 155. The
    seniority of Brahmanas is from (sacred) knowledge, that
    of Kshatriyas from valour, that of Vaisyas from wealth in
    grain (and other goods), but that of Sudras alone from
    age. 156. A man is not therefore (considered) venera-
    ble because his head is gray; him who, though young,
    has learned the Veda, the gods consider to be venerable.
    157. As an elephant made of wood, as an antelope made
    of leather, such is an unlearned Brahmana; those three
    have nothing but the names (of their kind). 158. As
    a eunuch is unproductive with women, as a cow with a
    cow is unproli c, and as a gift made to an ignorant man
    yields no reward, even so is a Brahmana useless, who
    (does) not (know) the Rikas. 159. Created beings must
    be instructed in (what concerns) their welfare without
    giving them pain, and sweet and gentle speech must be
    used by (a teacher) who desires (to abide by) the sacred
    law. 160. He, forsooth, whose speech and thoughts are
    pure and ever perfectly guarded, gains the whole reward
    which is conferred by the Vedanta. 161. Let him not,
    even though in pain, (speak words) cutting (others) to
    the quick; let him not injure others in thought or deed;
    let him not utter speeches which make (others) afraid
    of him, since that will prevent him from gaining heaven.
    162. A Brahmana should always fear homage as if it
    were poison; and constantly desire (to su er) scorn as
    (he would long for) nectar. 163. For he who is scorned
    (nevertheless may) sleep with an easy mind, awake with
    an easy mind, and with an easy mind walk here among
    men; but the scorner utterly perishes. 164. A twice-born
    man who has been sancti ed by the (employment of)
    the means, (described above) in due order, shall grad-
    ually and cumulatively perform the various austerities
    prescribed for (those who) study the Veda. 165. An
    Aryan must study the whole Veda together with the
    Rahasyas, performing at the same time various kinds of
    austerities and the vows prescribed by the rules (of the
    Veda). 166. Let a Brahmana who desires to perform
    austerities, constantly repeat the Veda; for the study of
    the Veda is declared (to be) in this world the highest
    austerity for a Brahmana. 167. Verily, that twice-born
    man performs the highest austerity up to the extremi-
    ties of his nails, who, though wearing a garland, daily
    recites the Veda in private to the utmost of his abil-
    ity. 168. A twice-born man who, not having studied
    the Veda, applies himself to other (and worldly study),
    soon falls, even while living, to the condition of a Su-
    dra and his descendants (after him). 169. According
    to the injunction of the revealed texts the rst birth of
    an Aryan is from (his natural) mother, the second (hap-
    pens) on the tying of the girdle of Munga grass, and
    the third on the initiation to (the performance of) a
    (Srauta) sacri ce. 170. Among those (three) the birth
    which is symbolised by the investiture with the girdle
    of Munga grass, is his birth for the sake of the Veda;
    they declare that in that (birth) the Sivitri (verse) is his
    mother and the teacher his father. 171. They call the
    teacher (the pupil's) father because he gives the Veda;
    for nobody can perform a (sacred) rite before the investi-
    ture with the girdle of Munga grass. 172. (He who has
    not been initiated) should not pronounce (any) Vedic
    text excepting (those required for) the performance of
    funeral rites, since he is on a level with a Sudra before
    his birth from the Veda. 173. The (student) who has
    been initiated must be instructed in the performance of
    the vows, and gradually learn the Veda, observing the
    prescribed rules. 174. Whatever dress of skin, sacred
    thread, girdle, sta , and lower garment are prescribed
    for a (student at the initiation), the like (must again
    be used) at the (performance of the) vows. 175. But a
    student who resides with his teacher must observe the
    following restrictive rules, duly controlling all his organs,
    in order to increase his spiritual merit. 176. Every day,
    having bathed, and being puri ed, he must o er liba-
    tions of water to the gods, sages and manes, worship (the
    images of) the gods, and place fuel on (the sacred re).
    177. Let him abstain from honey, meat, perfumes, gar-
    lands, substances (used for)
    avouring (food), women,
    all substances turned acid, and from doing injury to liv-
    ing creatures. 178. From anointing (his body), apply-
    ing collyrium to his eyes, from the use of shoes and of
    an umbrella (or parasol), from (sensual) desire, anger,
    covetousness, dancing, singing, and playing (musical in-
    struments), 179. From gambling, idle disputes, back-
    biting, and lying, from looking at and touching women,
    and from hurting others. 180. Let him always sleep
    alone, let him never waste his manhood; for he who
    voluntarily wastes his manhood, breaks his vow. 181.
    A twice-born student, who has involuntarily wasted his
    manly strength during sleep, must bathe, worship the
    sun, and afterwards thrice mutter the Rik-verse (which
    begins), 'Again let my strength return to me.' 182. Let
    him fetch a pot full of water,
    owers, cowdung, earth,
    and Kusa grass, as much as may be required (by his
    teacher), and daily go to beg food. 183. A student, be-
    ing pure, shall daily bring food from the houses of men
    who are not de cient in (the knowledge of) the Veda
    and in (performing) sacri ces, and who are famous for
    (following their lawful) occupations. 184. Let him not
    beg from the relatives of his teacher, nor from his own or
    his mother's blood-relations; but if there are no houses
    belonging to strangers, let him go to one of those named
    above, taking the last-named rst; 185. Or, if there are
    no (virtuous men of the kind) mentioned above, he may
    go to each (house in the) village, being pure and remain-
    ing silent; but let him avoid Abhisastas (those accused of
    mortal sin). 186. Having brought sacred fuel from a dis-
    tance, let him place it anywhere but on the ground, and
    let him, unwearied, make with it burnt oblations to the
    sacred re, both evening and morning. 187. He who,
    without being sick, neglects during seven (successive)
    days to go out begging, and to o er fuel in the sacred
    re, shall perform the penance of an Avakirnin (one who
    has broken his vow). 188. He who performs the vow (of
    studentship) shall constantly subsist on alms, (but) not
    eat the food of one (person only); the subsistence of a
    student on begged food is declared to be equal (in merit)
    to fasting. 189. At his pleasure he may eat, when in-
    vited, the food of one man at (a rite) in honour of the
    gods, observing (however the conditions on his vow, or at
    a (funeral meal) in honor of the manes, behaving (how-
    ever) like a hermit. 190. This duty is prescribed by the
    wise for a Brahmana only; but no such duty is ordained
    for a Kshatriya and a Vaisya. 191. Both when ordered
    by his teacher, and without a (special) command, (a stu-
    dent) shall always exert himself in studying (the Veda),
    and in doing what is serviceable to his teacher. 192.
    Controlling his body, his speech, his organs (of sense),
    and his mind, let him stand with joined hands, looking
    at the face of his teacher. 193. Let him always keep his
    right arm uncovered, behave decently and keep his body
    well covered, and when he is addressed (with the words),
    'Be seated,' he shall sit down, facing his teacher. 194. In
    the presence of his teacher let him always eat less, wear a
    less valuable dress and ornaments (than the former), and
    let him rise earlier (from his bed), and go to rest later.
    195. Let him not answer or converse with (his teacher),
    reclining on a bed, nor sitting, nor eating, nor standing,
    nor with an averted face. 196. Let him do (that), stand-
    ing up, if (his teacher) is seated, advancing towards him
    when he stands, going to meet him if he advances, and
    running after him when he runs; 197. Going (round) to
    face (the teacher), if his face is averted, approaching him
    if he stands at a distance, but bending towards him if
    he lies on a bed, and if he stands in a lower place. 198.
    When his teacher is nigh, let his bed or seat be low; but
    within sight of his teacher he shall not sit carelessly at
    ease. 199. Let him not pronounce the mere name of his
    teacher (without adding an honori c title) behind his
    back even, and let him not mimic his gait, speech, and
    deportment. 200. Wherever (people) justly censure or
    falsely defame his teacher, there he must cover his ears or
    depart thence to another place. 201. By censuring (his
    teacher), though justly, he will become (in his next birth)
    an ass, by falsely defaming him, a dog; he who lives on
    his teacher's substance, will become a worm, and he who
    is envious (of his merit), a (larger) insect. 202. He must
    not serve the (teacher by the intervention of another)
    while he himself stands aloof, nor when he (himself) is
    angry, nor when a woman is near; if he is seated in a
    carriage or on a (raised) seat, he must descend and af-
    terwards salute his (teacher). 203. Let him not sit with
    his teacher, to the leeward or to the windward (of him);
    nor let him say anything which his teacher cannot hear.
    204. He may sit with his teacher in a carriage drawn by
    oxen, horses, or camels, on a terrace, on a bed of grass or
    leaves, on a mat, on a rock, on a wooden bench, or in a
    boat. 205. If his teacher's teacher is near, let him behave
    (towards him) as towards his own teacher; but let him,
    unless he has received permission from his teacher, not
    salute venerable persons of his own (family). 206. This
    is likewise (ordained as) his constant behaviour towards
    (other) instructors in science, towards his relatives (to
    whom honour is due), towards all who may restrain him
    from sin, or may give him salutary advice. 207. Towards
    his betters let him always behave as towards his teacher,
    likewise towards sons of his teacher, born by wives of
    equal caste, and towards the teacher's relatives both on
    the side of the father and of the mother. 208. The son
    of the teacher who imparts instruction (in his father's
    stead), whether younger or of equal age, or a student of
    (the science of) sacri ces (or of other Angas), deserves
    the same honour as the teacher. 209. (A student) must
    not shampoo the limbs of his teacher's son, nor assist
    him in bathing, nor eat the fragments of his food, nor
    wash his feet. 210. The wives of the teacher, who be-
    long to the same caste, must be treated as respectfully as
    the teacher; but those who belong to a di erent caste,
    must be honoured by rising and salutation. 211. Let
    him not perform for a wife of his teacher (the oces of)
    anointing her, assisting her in the bath, shampooing her
    limbs, or arranging her hair. 212. (A pupil) who is full
    twenty years old, and knows what is becoming and un-
    becoming, shall not salute a young wife of his teacher
    (by clasping) her feet. 213. It is the nature of women
    to seduce men in this (world); for that reason the wise
    are never unguarded in (the company of) females. 214.
    For women are able to lead astray in (this) world not
    only a fool, but even a learned man, and (to make) him
    a slave of desire and anger. 215. One should not sit in
    a lonely place with one's mother, sister, or daughter; for
    the senses are powerful, and master even a learned man.
    216. But at his pleasure a young student may prostrate
    himself on the ground before the young wife of a teacher,
    in accordance with the rule, and say, 'I, N. N., (worship
    thee, O lady).' 217. On returning from a journey he
    must clasp the feet of his teacher's wife and daily salute
    her (in the manner just mentioned), remembering the
    duty of the virtuous. 218. As the man who digs with a
    spade (into the ground) obtains water, even so an obe-
    dient (pupil) obtains the knowledge which lies (hidden)
    in his teacher. 219. A (student) may either shave his
    head, or wear his hair in braids, or braid one lock on the
    crown of his head; the sun must never set or rise while
    he (lies asleep) in the village. 220. If the sun should
    rise or set while he is sleeping, be it (that he o ended)
    intentionally or unintentionally, he shall fast during the
    (next) day, muttering (the Savitri). 221. For he who
    lies (sleeping), while the sun sets or rises, and does not
    perform (that) penance, is tainted by great guilt. 222.
    Puri ed by sipping water, he shall daily worship dur-
    ing both twilights with a concentrated mind in a pure
    place, muttering the prescribed text according to the
    rule. 223. If a woman or a man of low caste perform
    anything (leading to) happiness, let him diligently prac-
    tise it, as well as (any other permitted act) in which his
    heart nds pleasure. 224. (Some declare that) the chief
    good consists in (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and
    wealth, (others place it) in (the grati cation of) desire
    and (the acquisition of) wealth, (others) in (the acqui-
    sition of) spiritual merit alone, and (others say that the
    acquisition of) wealth alone is the chief good here (be-
    low); but the (correct) decision is that it consists of the
    aggregate of (those) three. 225. The teacher, the father,
    the mother, and an elder brother must not be treated
    with disrespect, especially by a Brahmana, though one
    be grievously o ended (by them). 226. The teacher is
    the image of Brahman, the father the image of Pragipati
    (the lord of created beings), the mother the image of the
    earth, and an (elder) full brother the image of oneself.
    227. That trouble (and pain) which the parents undergo
    on the birth of (their) children, cannot be compensated
    even in a hundred years. 228. Let him always do what is
    agreeable to those (two) and always (what may please)
    his teacher; when those three are pleased, he obtains all
    (those rewards which) austerities (yield). 229. Obedi-
    ence towards those three is declared to be the best (form
    of) austerity; let him not perform other meritorious acts
    without their permission. 230. For they are declared to
    be the three worlds, they the three (principal) orders,
    they the three Vedas, and they the three sacred res.
    231. The father, forsooth, is stated to be the Garhap-
    atya re, the mother the Dakshinagni, but the teacher
    the Ahavaniya re; this triad of res is most venera-
    ble. 232. He who neglects not those three, (even after
    he has become) a householder, will conquer the three
    worlds and, radiant in body like a god, he will enjoy
    bliss in heaven. 233. By honouring his mother he gains
    this (nether) world, by honouring his father the mid-
    dle sphere, but by obedience to his teacher the world of
    Brahman. 234. All duties have been ful lled by him who
    honours those three; but to him who honours them not,
    all rites remain fruitless. 235. As long as those three live,
    so long let him not (independently) perform any other
    (meritorious acts); let him always serve them, rejoicing
    (to do what is) agreeable and bene cial (to them). 236.
    He shall inform them of everything that with their con-
    sent he may perform in thought, word, or deed for the
    sake of the next world. 237. By (honouring) these three
    all that ought to be done by man, is accomplished; that
    is clearly the highest duty, every other (act) is a subordi-
    nate duty. 238. He who possesses faith may receive pure
    learning even from a man of lower caste, the highest law
    even from the lowest, and an excellent wife even from a
    base family. 239. Even from poison nectar may be taken,
    even from a child good advice, even from a foe (a lesson
    in) good conduct, and even from an impure (substance)
    gold. 240. Excellent wives, learning, (the knowledge of)
    the law, (the rules of) purity, good advice, and various
    arts may be acquired from anybody. 241. It is pre-
    scribed that in times of distress (a student) may learn
    (the Veda) from one who is not a Brahmana; and that
    he shall walk behind and serve (such a) teacher, as long
    as the instruction lasts. 242. He who desires incompara-
    ble bliss (in heaven) shall not dwell during his whole life
    in (the house of) a non-Brahmanical teacher, nor with a
    Brahmana who does not know the whole Veda and the
    Angas. 243. But if (a student) desires to pass his whole
    life in the teacher's house, he must diligently serve him,
    until he is freed from this body. 244. A Brahmana who
    serves his teacher till the dissolution of his body, reaches
    forthwith the eternal mansion of Brahman. 245. He who
    knows the sacred law must not present any gift to his
    teacher before (the Samavartana); but when, with the
    permission of his teacher, he is about to take the ( -
    nal) bath, let him procure (a present) for the venerable
    man according to his ability, 246. (Viz.) a eld, gold, a
    cow, a horse, a parasol and shoes, a seat, grain, (even)
    vegetables, (and thus) give pleasure to his teacher. 247.
    (A perpetual student) must, if his teacher dies, serve his
    son (provided he be) endowed with good qualities, or
    his widow, or his Sapinda, in the same manner as the
    teacher. 248. Should none of these be alive, he must
    serve the sacred re, standing (by day) and sitting (dur-
    ing the night), and thus nish his life. 249. A Brahmana
    who thus passes his life as a student without breaking
    his vow, reaches (after death) the highest abode and will
    not be born again in this world.
    1. The vow (of studying) the three Vedas under a
    teacher must be kept for thirty-six years, or for half that
    time, or for a quarter, or until the (student) has per-
    fectly learnt them. 2. (A student) who has studied in
    due order the three Vedas, or two, or even one only,
    without breaking the (rules of) studentship, shall en-
    ter the order of householders. 3. He who is famous for
    (the strict performance of) his duties and has received
    his heritage, the Veda, from his father, shall be hon-
    oured, sitting on a couch and adorned with a garland,
    with (the present of) a cow (and the honey-mixture). 4.
    Having bathed, with the permission of his teacher, and
    performed according to the rule the Samavartana (the
    rite on returning home), a twice-born man shall marry
    a wife of equal caste who is endowed with auspicious
    (bodily) marks. 5. A damsel who is neither a Sapinda
    on the mother's side, nor belongs to the same family on
    the father's side, is recommended to twice-born men for
    wedlock and conjugal union. 6. In connecting himself
    with a wife, let him carefully avoid the ten following
    families, be they ever so great, or rich in kine, horses,
    sheep, grain, or (other) property, 7. (Viz.) one which
    neglects the sacred rites, one in which no male children
    (are born), one in which the Veda is not studied, one (the
    members of) which have thick hair on the body, those
    which are subject to hemorrhoids, phthisis, weakness of
    digestion, epilepsy, or white or black leprosy. 8. Let him
    not marry a maiden (with) reddish (hair), nor one who
    has a redundant member, nor one who is sickly, nor one
    either with no hair (on the body) or too much, nor one
    who is garrulous or has red (eyes), 9. Nor one named af-
    ter a constellation, a tree, or a river, nor one bearing the
    name of a low caste, or of a mountain, nor one named
    after a bird, a snake, or a slave, nor one whose name
    inspires terror. 10. Let him wed a female free from bod-
    ily defects, who has an agreeable name, the (graceful)
    gait of a Hamsa or of an elephant, a moderate (quantity
    of) hair on the body and on the head, small teeth, and
    soft limbs. 11. But a prudent man should not marry
    (a maiden) who has no brother, nor one whose father is
    not known, through fear lest (in the former case she be
    made) an appointed daughter (and in the latter) lest (he
    should commit) sin. 12. For the rst marriage of twice-
    born men (wives) of equal caste are recommended; but
    for those who through desire proceed (to marry again)
    the following females, (chosen) according to the (direct)
    order (of the castes), are most approved. 13. It is de-
    clared that a Sudra woman alone (can be) the wife of
    a Sudra, she and one of his own caste (the wives) of a
    Vaisya, those two and one of his own caste (the wives)
    of a Kshatriya, those three and one of his own caste (the
    wives) of a Brahmana. 14. A Sudra woman is not men-
    tioned even in any (ancient) story as the ( rst) wife of
    a Brahmana or of a Kshatriya, though they lived in the
    (greatest) distress. 15. Twice-born men who, in their
    folly, wed wives of the low (Sudra) caste, soon degrade
    their families and their children to the state of Sudras.
    16. According to Atri and to (Gautama) the son of
    Utathya, he who weds a Sudra woman becomes an out-
    cast, according to Saunaka on the birth of a son, and
    according to Bhrigu he who has (male) o spring from
    a (Sudra female, alone). 17. A Brahmana who takes a
    Sudra wife to his bed, will (after death) sink into hell;
    if he begets a child by her, he will lose the rank of a
    Brahmana. 18. The manes and the gods will not eat
    the (o erings) of that man who performs the rites in
    honour of the gods, of the manes, and of guests chie
    with a (Sudra wife's) assistance, and such (a man) will
    not go to heaven. 19. For him who drinks the moisture
    of a Sudra's lips, who is tainted by her breath, and who
    begets a son on her, no expiation is prescribed.
    20. Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the
    following eight marriage-rites used by the four castes
    (varna) which partly secure bene ts and partly produce
    evil both in this life and after death. 21. (They are) the
    rite of Brahman (Brahma), that of the gods (Daiva),
    that of the Rishis (Arsha), that of Pragapati (Pragap-
    atya), that of the Asuras (Asura), that of the Gandhar-
    vas (Gandharva), that of the Rhashasas (Rakshasa), and
    that of the Pisakas (Paisaka). 22. Which is lawful for
    each caste (varna) and which are the virtues or faults
    of each (rite), all this I will declare to you, as well as
    their good and evil results with respect to the o spring.
    23. One may know that the rst six according to the
    order (followed above) are lawful for a Brahmana, the
    four last for a Kshatriya, and the same four, excepting
    the Rakshasa rite, for a Vaisya and a Sudra. 24. The
    sages state that the rst four are approved (in the case)
    of a Brahmana, one, the Rakshasa (rite in the case) of a
    Kshatriya, and the Asura (marriage in that) of a Vaisya
    and of a Sudra. 25. But in these (Institutes of the sa-
    cred law) three of the ve (last) are declared to be law-
    ful and two unlawful; the Paisaka and the Asura (rites)
    must never be used. 26. For Kshatriyas those before-
    mentioned two rites, the Gandharva and the Rakshasa,
    whether separate or mixed, are permitted by the sacred
    tradition. 27. The gift of a daughter, after decking her
    (with costly garments) and honouring (her by presents
    of jewels), to a man learned in the Veda and of good
    conduct, whom (the father) himself invites, is called the
    Brahma rite. 28. The gift of a daughter who has been
    decked with ornaments, to a priest who duly ociates
    at a sacri ce, during the course of its performance, they
    call the Daiva rite. 29. When (the father) gives away his
    daughter according to the rule, after receiving from the
    bridegroom, for (the ful lment of) the sacred law, a cow
    and a bull or two pairs, that is named the Arsha rite.
    30. The gift of a daughter (by her father) after he has
    addressed (the couple) with the text, 'May both of you
    perform together your duties,' and has shown honour
    (to the bridegroom), is called in the Smriti the Pragap-
    atya rite. 31. When (the bridegroom) receives a maiden,
    after having given as much wealth as he can a ord, to
    the kinsmen and to the bride herself, according to his
    own will, that is called the Asura rite. 32. The volun-
    tary union of a maiden and her lover one must know (to
    be) the Gandharva rite, which springs from desire and
    has sexual intercourse for its purpose. 33. The forcible
    abduction of a maiden from her home, while she cries
    out and weeps, after (her kinsmen) have been slain or
    wounded and (their houses) broken open, is called the
    Rakshasa rite. 34. When (a man) by stealth seduces
    a girl who is sleeping, intoxicated, or disordered in in-
    tellect, that is the eighth, the most base and sinful rite
    of the Pisakas. 35. The gift of daughters among Brah-
    manas is most approved, (if it is preceded) by (a libation
    of) water; but in the case of other castes (it may be per-
    formed) by (the expression of) mutual consent.
    36. Listen now to me, ye Brahmanas, while I fully
    declare what quality has been ascribed by Manu to each
    of these marriage-rites. 37. The son of a wife wedded ac-
    cording to the Brahma rite, if he performs meritorious
    acts, liberates from sin ten ancestors, ten descendants
    and himself as the twenty- rst. 38. The son born of a
    wife, wedded according to the Daiva rite, likewise (saves)
    seven ancestors and seven descendants, the son of a wife
    married by the Arsha rite three (in the ascending and de-
    scending lines), and the son of a wife married by the rite
    of Ka (Pragapati) six (in either line). 39. From the four
    marriages, (enumerated) successively, which begin with
    the Brahma rite spring sons, radiant with knowledge of
    the Veda and honoured by the Sishtas (good men). 40.
    Endowded with the qualities of beauty and goodness,
    possessing wealth and fame, obtaining as many enjoy-
    ments as they desire and being most righteous, they
    will live a hundred years. 41. But from the remaining
    (four) blamable marriages spring sons who are cruel and
    speakers of untruth, who hate the Veda and the sacred
    law. 42. In the blameless marriages blameless children
    are born to men, in blamable (marriages) blamable (o -
    spring); one should therefore avoid the blamable (forms
    of marriage). 43. The ceremony of joining the hands
    is prescribed for (marriages with) women of equal caste
    (varna); know that the following rule (applies) to wed-
    dings with females of a di erent caste (varna). 44. On
    marrying a man of a higher caste a Kshatriya bride must
    take hold of an arrow, a Vaisya bride of a goad, and a
    Sudra female of the hem of the (bridegroom's) garment.
    45. Let (the husband) approach his wife in due season,
    being constantly satis ed with her (alone); he may also,
    being intent on pleasing her, approach her with a desire
    for conjugal union (on any day) excepting the Parvans.
    46. Sixteen (days and) nights (in each month), including
    four days which di er from the rest and are censured by
    the virtuous, (are called) the natural season of women.
    47. But among these the rst four, the eleventh and the
    thirteenth are (declared to be) forbidden; the remaining
    nights are recommended. 48. On the even nights sons
    are conceived and daughters on the uneven ones; hence
    a man who desires to have sons should approach his wife
    in due season on the even (nights). 49. A male child is
    produced by a greater quantity of male seed, a female
    child by the prevalence of the female; if (both are) equal,
    a hermaphrodite or a boy and a girl; if (both are) weak
    or de cient in quantity, a failure of conception (results).
    50. He who avoids women on the six forbidden nights
    and on eight others, is (equal in chastity to) a student, in
    whichever order he may live. 51. No father who knows
    (the law) must take even the smallest gratuity for his
    daughter; for a man who, through avarice, takes a gra-
    tuity, is a seller of his o spring. 52. But those (male)
    relations who, in their folly, live on the separate property
    of women, (e.g. appropriate) the beasts of burden, car-
    riages, and clothes of women, commit sin and will sink
    into hell. 53. Some call the cow and the bull (given) at
    an Arsha wedding 'a gratuity;' (but) that is wrong, since
    (the acceptance of) a fee, be it small or great, is a sale
    (of the daughter). 54. When the relatives do not appro-
    priate (for their use) the gratuity (given), it is not a sale;
    (in that case) the (gift) is only a token of respect and of
    kindness towards the maidens. 55. Womenmust be hon-
    oured and adorned by their fathers, brothers, husbands,
    and brothers-in-law, who desire (their own) welfare. 56.
    Where women are honoured, there the gods are pleased;
    but where they are not honoured, no sacred rite yields
    rewards. 57. Where the female relations live in grief, the
    family soon wholly perishes; but that family where they
    are not unhappy ever prospers. 58. The houses on which
    female relations, not being duly honoured, pronounce a
    curse, perish completely, as if destroyed by magic. 59.
    Hence men who seek (their own) welfare, should always
    honour women on holidays and festivals with (gifts of)
    ornaments, clothes, and (dainty) food. 60. In that fam-
    ily, where the husband is pleased with his wife and the
    wife with her husband, happiness will assuredly be last-
    ing. 61. For if the wife is not radiant with beauty, she
    will not attract her husband; but if she has no attrac-
    tions for him, no children will be born. 62. If the wife is
    radiant with beauty, the whole house is bright; but if she
    is destitute of beauty, all will appear dismal. 63. By low
    marriages, by omitting (the performance of) sacred rites,
    by neglecting the study of the Veda, and by irreverence
    towards Brahmanas, (great) families sink low. 64. By
    (practising) handicrafts, by pecuniary transactions, by
    (begetting) children on Sudra females only, by (trading
    in) cows, horses, and carriages, by (the pursuit of) agri-
    culture and by taking service under a king, 65. By sacri-
    cing for men unworthy to o er sacri ces and by deny-
    ing (the future rewards for good) works, families, de -
    cient in the (knowledge of the) Veda, quickly perish. 66.
    But families that are rich in the knowledge of the Veda,
    though possessing little wealth, are numbered among the
    great, and acquire great fame. 67. With the sacred re,
    kindled at the wedding, a householder shall perform ac-
    cording to the law the domestic ceremonies and the ve
    (great) sacri ces, and (with that) he shall daily cook his
    food. 68. A householder has ve slaughter-houses (as it
    were, viz.) the hearth, the grinding-stone, the broom,
    the pestle and mortar, the water-vessel, by using which
    he is bound (with the fetters of sin). 69. In order to
    successively expiate (the o ences committed by means)
    of all these ( ve) the great sages have prescribed for
    householders the daily (performance of the ve) great
    sacri ces. 70. Teaching (and studying) is the sacri ce
    (o ered) to Brahman, the (o erings of water and food
    called) Tarpana the sacri ce to the manes, the burnt
    oblation the sacri ce o ered to the gods, the Bali of-
    fering that o ered to the Bhutas, and the hospitable
    reception of guests the o ering to men. 71. He who ne-
    glects not these ve great sacri ces, while he is able (to
    perform them), is not tainted by the sins (committed)
    in the ve places of slaughter, though he constantly lives
    in the (order of) house (-holders). 72. But he who does
    not feed these ve, the gods, his guests, those whom he
    is bound to maintain, the manes, and himself, lives not,
    though he breathes. 73. They call (these) ve sacri ces
    also, Ahuta, Huta, Prahuta, Brahmya-huta, and Pra-
    sita. 74. Ahuta (not o ered in the re) is the muttering
    (of Vedic texts), Huta the burnt oblation (o ered to the
    gods), Prahuta (o ered by scattering it on the ground)
    the Bali o ering given to the Bhutas, Brahmya-huta (of-
    fered in the digestive re of Brahmanas), the respectful
    reception of Brahmana (guests), and Prasita (eaten) the
    (daily oblation to the manes, called) Tarpana. 75. Let
    (every man) in this (second order, at least) daily apply
    himself to the private recitation of the Veda, and also
    to the performance of the o ering to the gods; for he
    who is diligent in the performance of sacri ces, supports
    both the movable and the immovable creation. 76. An
    oblation duly thrown into the re, reaches the sun; from
    the sun comes rain, from rain food, therefrom the living
    creatures (derive their subsistence). 77. As all living
    creatures subsist by receiving support from air, even so
    (the members of) all orders subsist by receiving support
    from the householder. 78. Because men of the three
    (other) orders are daily supported by the householder
    with (gifts of) sacred knowledge and food, therefore (the
    order of) householders is the most excellent order. 79.
    (The duties of) this order, which cannot be practised
    by men with weak organs, must be carefully observed
    by him who desires imperishable (bliss in) heaven, and
    constant happiness in this (life). 80. The sages, the
    manes, the gods, the Bhutas, and guests ask the house-
    holders (for o erings and gifts); hence he who knows (the
    law), must give to them (what is due to each). 81. Let
    him worship, according to the rule, the sages by the pri-
    vate recitation of the Veda, the gods by burnt oblations,
    the manes by funeral o erings (Sraddha), men by (gifts
    of) food, and the Bhutas by the Bali o ering. 82. Let
    him daily perform a funeral sacri ce with food, or with
    water, or also with milk, roots, and fruits, and (thus)
    please the manes. 83. Let him feed even one Brahmana
    in honour of the manes at (the Sraddha), which belongs
    to the ve great sacri ces; but let him not feed on that
    (occasion) any Brahmana on account of the Vaisvadeva
    o ering. 84. A Brahmana shall o er according to the
    rule (of his Grihya-sutra a portion) of the cooked food
    destined for the Vaisvadeva in the sacred domestic re
    to the following deities: 85. First to Agni, and (next) to
    Soma, then to both these gods conjointly, further to all
    the gods (Visve Devah), and (then) to Dhanvantari, 86.
    Further to Kuhu (the goddess of the new-moon day), to
    Anumati (the goddess of the full-moon day), to Praga-
    pati (the lord of creatures), to heaven and earth con-
    jointly, and nally to Agni Svishtakrit (the re which
    performs the sacri ce well). 87. After having thus duly
    o ered the sacri cial food, let him throw Bali o erings
    in all directions of the compass, proceeding (from the
    east) to the south, to Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Soma,
    as well as to the servants (of these deities). 88. Saying,
    '(Adoration) to the Maruts,' he shall scatter (some food)
    near the door, and (some) in water, saying, '(Adoration
    to the waters;' he shall throw (some) on the pestle and
    the mortar, speaking thus, '(Adoration) to the trees.'
    89. Near the head (of the bed) he shall make an o er-
    ing to Sri (fortune), and near the foot (of his bed) to
    Bhadrakali; in the centre of the house let him place a
    Bali for Brahman and for Vastoshpati (the lord of the
    dwelling) conjointly. 90. Let him throw up into the air
    a Bali for all the gods, and (in the day-time one) for
    the goblins roaming about by day, (and in the evening
    one) for the goblins that walk at night. 91. In the upper
    story let him o er a Bali to Sarvatmabhuti; but let him
    throw what remains (from these o erings) in a southerly
    direction for the manes. 92. Let him gently place on the
    ground (some food) for dogs, outcasts, Kandalas (Sva-
    pak), those aicted with diseases that are punishments
    of former sins, crows, and insects. 93. That Brahmana
    who thus daily honours all beings, goes, endowed with
    a resplendent body, by a straight road to the highest
    dwelling-place (i.e. Brahman). 94. Having performed
    this Bali o ering, he shall rst feed his guest and, ac-
    cording to the rule, give alms to an ascetic (and) to a
    student. 95. A twice-born householder gains, by giving
    alms, the same reward for his meritorious act which (a
    student) obtains for presenting, in accordance with the
    rule, a cow to his teacher. 96. Let him give, in accor-
    dance with the rule, to a Brahmana who knows the true
    meaning of the Veda, even (a small portion of food as)
    alms, or a pot full of water, having garnished (the food
    with seasoning, or the pot with
    owers and fruit). 97.
    The oblations to gods and manes, made by men ignorant
    (of the law of gifts), are lost, if the givers in their folly
    present (shares of them) to Brahmanas who are mere
    ashes. 98. An o ering made in the mouth- re of Brah-
    manas rich in sacred learning and austerities, saves from
    misfortune and from great guilt. 99. But let him o er,
    in accordance with the rule, to a guest who has come (of
    his own accord) a seat and water, as well as food, gar-
    nished (with seasoning), according to his ability. 100. A
    Brahmana who stays unhonoured (in the house), takes
    away (with him) all the spiritual merit even of a man
    who subsists by gleaning ears of corn, or o ers oblations
    in ve res. 101. Grass, room (for resting), water, and
    fourthly a kind word; these (things) never fail in the
    houses of good men. 102. But a Brahmana who stays
    one night only is declared to be a guest (atithi); for be-
    cause he stays (sthita) not long (anityam), he is called
    atithi (a guest). 103. One must not consider as a guest
    a Brahmana who dwells in the same village, nor one who
    seeks his livelihood by social intercourse, even though he
    has come to a house where (there is) a wife, and where
    sacred res (are kept). 104. Those foolish householders
    who constantly seek (to live on) the food of others, be-
    come, in consequence of that (baseness), after death the
    cattle of those who give them food. 105. A guest who
    is sent by the (setting) sun in the evening, must not be
    driven away by a householder; whether he have come at
    (supper-) time or at an inopportune moment, he must
    not stay in the house without entertainment. 106. Let
    him not eat any (dainty) food which he does not o er
    to his guest; the hospitable reception of guests procures
    wealth, fame, long life, and heavenly bliss. 107. Let
    him o er (to his guests) seats, rooms, beds, attendance
    on departure and honour (while they stay), to the most
    distinguished in the best form, to the lower ones in a
    lower form, to equals in an equal manner. 108. But if
    another guest comes after the Vaisvadeva o ering has
    been nished, (the householder) must give him food ac-
    cording to his ability, (but) not repeat the Bali o ering.
    109. A Brahmana shall not name his family and (Vedic)
    gotra in order to obtain a meal; for he who boasts of
    them for the sake of a meal, is called by the wise a foul
    feeder (vantasin). 110. But a Kshatriya (who comes) to
    the house of a Brahmana is not called a guest (atithi),
    nor a Vaisya, nor a Sudra, nor a personal friend, nor a
    relative, nor the teacher. 111. But if a Kshatriya comes
    to the house of a Brahmana in the manner of a guest,
    (the house-holder) may feed him according to his de-
    sire, after the above-mentioned Brahmanas have eaten.
    112. Even a Vaisya and a Sudra who have approached
    his house in the manner of guests, he may allow to eat
    with his servants, showing (thereby) his compassionate
    disposition. 113. Even to others, personal friends and
    so forth, who have come to his house out of a ection,
    he may give food, garnished (with seasoning) according
    to his ability, (at the same time) with his wife. 114.
    Without hesitation he may give food, even before his
    guests, to the following persons, (viz.) to newly-married
    women, to infants, to the sick, and to pregnant women.
    115. But the foolish man who eats rst without having
    given food to these (persons) does, while he crams, not
    know that (after death) he himself will be devoured by
    dogs and vultures. 116. After the Brahmanas, the kins-
    men, and the servants have dined, the householder and
    his wife may afterwards eat what remains. 117. Having
    honoured the gods, the sages, men, the manes, and the
    guardian deities of the house, the householder shall eat
    afterwards what remains. 118. He who prepares food for
    himself (alone), eats nothing but sin; for it is ordained
    that the food which remains after (the performance of)
    the sacri ces shall be the meal of virtuous men. 119.
    Let him honour with the honey-mixture a king, an of-
    ciating priest, a Snataka, the teacher, a son-in-law, a
    father-in-law, and a maternal uncle, (if they come) again
    after a full year (has elapsed since their last visit). 120.
    A king and a Srotriya, who come on the performance of
    a sacri ce, must be honoured with the honey-mixture,
    but not if no sacri ce is being performed; that is a set-
    tled rule. 121. But the wife shall o er in the evening (a
    portion) of the dressed food as a Bali-oblation, without
    (the recitation of) sacred formulas; for that (rite which is
    called the) Vaisvadeva is prescribed both for the morning
    and the evening. 122. After performing the Pitriyagna,
    a Brahmana who keeps a sacred re shall o er, month
    by month, on the new-moon day, the funeral sacri ce
    (Sraddha, called) Pindanvaharyaka. 123. The wise call
    the monthly funeral o ering to the manes Anvaharya (to
    be o ered after the cakes), and that must be carefully
    performed with the approved (sorts of)
    esh (mentioned
    124. I will fully declare what and how many (Brah-
    manas) must be fed on that (occasion), who must be
    avoided, and on what kinds of food (they shall dine).
    125. One must feed two (Brahmanas) at the o ering to
    the gods, and three at the o ering to the manes, or one
    only on either occasion; even a very wealthy man shall
    not be anxious (to entertain) a large company. 126. A
    large company destroys these ve (advantages) the re-
    spectful treatment (of the invited, the propriety of) place
    and time, purity and (the selection of) virtuous Brah-
    mana (guests); he therefore shall not seek (to entertain)
    a large company. 127. Famed is this rite for the dead,
    called (the sacri ce sacred to the manes (and performed)
    on the new-moon day; if a man is diligent in (perform-
    ing) that, (the reward of) the rite for the dead, which is
    performed according to Smarta rules, reaches him con-
    stantly. 128. Oblations to the gods and manes must be
    presented by the givers to a Srotriya alone; what is given
    to such a most worthy Brahmana yields great reward.
    129. Let him feed even one learned man at (the sacri-
    ce) to the gods, and one at (the sacri ce) to the manes;
    (thus) he will gain a rich reward, not (if he entertains)
    many who are unacquainted with the Veda. 130. Let
    him make inquiries even regarding the remote (ances-
    tors of) a Brahmana who has studied an entire (recen-
    sion of the) Veda; (if descended from a virtuous race)
    such a man is a worthy recipient of gifts (consisting) of
    food o ered to the gods or to the manes, he is declared
    (to procure as great rewards as) a guest (atithi). 131.
    Though a million of men, unaquainted with the Rikas,
    were to dine at a (funeral sacri ce), yet a single man,
    learned in the Veda, who is satis ed (with his entertain-
    ment), is worth them all as far as the (production of)
    spiritual merit (is concerned). 132. Food sacred to the
    manes or to the gods must be given to a man distin-
    guished by sacred knowledge; for hands, smeared with
    blood, cannot be cleansed with blood. 133. As many
    mouthfuls as an ignorant man swallows at a sacri ce to
    the gods or to the manes, so many red-hot spikes, spears,
    and iron balls must (the giver of the repast) swallow af-
    ter death. 134. Some Brahmanas are devoted to (the
    pursuit of) knowledge, and others to (the performance
    of) austerities; some to austerities and to the recitation
    of the Veda, and others to (the performance of) sacred
    rites. 135. Oblations to the manes ought to be carefully
    presented to those devoted to knowledge, but o erings
    to the gods, in accordance with the reason (of the sacred
    law), to (men of) all the four (above-mentioned classes).
    136. If there is a father ignorant of the sacred texts
    whose son has learned one whole recension of the Veda
    and the Angas, and a son ignorant of the sacred texts
    whose father knows an entire recension of the Veda and
    the Angas, 137. Know that he whose father knows the
    Veda, is the more venerable one (of the two); yet the
    other one is worthy of honour, because respect is due
    to the Veda (which he has learned). 138. Let him not
    entertain a personal friend at a funeral sacri ce; he may
    gain his a ection by (other) valuable gifts; let him feed
    at a Sraddha a Brahmana whom he considers neither
    as a foe nor as a friend. 139. He who performs funeral
    sacri ces and o erings to the gods chie
    y for the sake of
    (gaining) friends, reaps after death no reward for Srad-
    dhas and sacri ces. 140. That meanest among twice-
    born men who in his folly contracts friendships through
    a funeral sacri ce, loses heaven, because he performed
    a Sraddha for the sake of friendship. 141. A gift (of
    food) by twice-born men, consumed with (friends and
    relatives), is said to be o ered to the Pisakas; it remains
    in this (world) alone like a blind cow in one stable. 142.
    As a husbandman reaps no harvest when he has sown
    the seed in barren soil, even so the giver of sacri cial
    food gains no reward if he presented it to a man unac-
    quainted with the Rikas. 143. But a present made in
    accordance with the rules to a learned man, makes the
    giver and the recipient partakers of rewards both in this
    (life) and after death. 144. (If no learned Brahmana
    be at hand), he may rather honour a (virtuous) friend
    than an enemy, though the latter may be quali ed (by
    learning and so forth); for sacri cial food, eaten by a
    foe, bears no reward after death. 145. Let him (take)
    pains (to) feed at a Sraddha an adherent of the Rig-veda
    who has studied one entire (recension of that) Veda, or a
    follower of the Yagur-veda who has nished one Sakha,
    or a singer of Samans who (likewise) has completed (the
    study of an entire recension). 146. If one of these three
    dines, duly honoured, at a funeral sacri ce, the ances-
    tors of him (who gives the feast), as far as the seventh
    person, will be satis ed for a very long time. 147. This
    is the chief rule (to be followed) in o ering sacri ces to
    the gods and manes; know that the virtuous always ob-
    serve the following subsidiary rule. 148. One may also
    entertain (on such occasions) one's maternal grandfa-
    ther, a maternal uncle, a sister's son, a father-in-law,
    one's teacher, a daughter's son, a daughter's husband, a
    cognate kinsman, one's own ociating priest or a man
    for whom one o ers sacri ces. 149. For a rite sacred
    to the gods, he who knows the law will not make (too
    close) inquiries regarding an (invited) Brahmana; but
    when one performs a ceremony in honour of the manes,
    one must carefully examine (the qualities and parent-
    age of the guest). 150. Manu has declared that those
    Brahmanas who are thieves, outcasts, eunuchs, or athe-
    ists are unworthy (to partake) of oblations to the gods
    and manes. 151. Let him not entertain at a Sraddha
    one who wears his hair in braids (a student), one who
    has not studied (the Veda), one aicted with a skin-
    disease, a gambler, nor those who sacri ce for a mul-
    titude (of sacri cers). 152. Physicians, temple-priests,
    sellers of meat, and those who subsist by shop-keeping
    must be avoided at sacri ces o ered to the gods and to
    the manes. 153. A paid servant of a village or of a king,
    man with deformed nails or black teeth, one who op-
    poses his teacher, one who has forsaken the sacred re,
    and a usurer; 154. One su ering from consumption, one
    who subsists by tending cattle, a younger brother who
    marries or kindles the sacred re before the elder, one
    who neglects the ve great sacri ces, an enemy of the
    Brahmana race, an elder brother who marries or kindles
    the sacred re after the younger, and one who belongs
    to a company or corporation, 155. An actor or singer,
    one who has broken the vow of studentship, one whose
    (only or rst) wife is a Sudra female, the son of a remar-
    ried woman, a one-eyed man, and he in whose house a
    paramour of his wife (resides); 156. He who teaches for
    a stipulated fee and he who is taught on that condition,
    he who instructs Sudra pupils and he whose teacher is
    a Sudra, he who speaks rudely, the son of an adulter-
    ess, and the son of a widow, 157. He who forsakes his
    mother, his father, or a teacher without a (sucient)
    reason, he who has contracted an alliance with outcasts
    either through the Veda or through a marriage, 158. An
    incendiary, a prisoner, he who eats the food given by
    the son of an adulteress, a seller of Soma, he who under-
    takes voyages by sea, a bard, an oil-man, a suborner to
    perjury, 159. He who wrangles or goes to law with his
    father, the keeper of a gambling-house, a drunkard, he
    who is aicted with a disease (in punishment of former)
    crimes, he who is accused of a mortal sin, a hypocrite,
    a seller of substances used for
    avouring food, 160. A
    maker of bows and of arrows, he who lasciviously dallies
    with a brother's widow, the betrayer of a friend, one who
    subsists by gambling, he who learns (the Veda) from his
    son, 161. An epileptic man, who su ers from scrofulous
    swellings of the glands, one aicted with white leprosy,
    an informer, a madman, a blind man, and he who cavils
    at the Veda must (all) be avoided. 162. A trainer of
    elephants, oxen, horses, or camels, he who subsists by
    astrology, a bird-fancier, and he who teaches the use of
    arms, 163. He who diverts water-courses, and he who
    delights in obstructing them, an architect, a messenger,
    and he who plants trees (for money), 164. A breeder of
    sporting-dogs, a falconer, one who de les maidens, he
    who delights in injuring living creatures, he who gains
    his subsistence from Sudras, and he who o ers sacri ces
    to the Ganas, 165. He who does not follow the rule
    of conduct, a (man destitute of energy like a) eunuch,
    one who constantly asks (for favours), he who lives by
    agriculture, a club-footed man, and he who is censured
    by virtuous men, 166. A shepherd, a keeper of bu aloes,
    the husband of a remarried woman, and a carrier of dead
    bodies, (all these) must be carefully avoided. 167. A
    Brahmana who knows (the sacred law) should shun at
    (sacri ces) both (to the gods and to the manes) these
    lowest of twice-born men, whose conduct is reprehensi-
    ble, and who are unworthy (to sit) in the company (at a
    repast). 168. As a re of dry grass is (unable to consume
    the o erings and is quickly) extinguished, even so (is it
    with) an unlearned Brahmana; sacri cial food must not
    be given to him, since it (would be) o ered in ashes.
    169. I will fully declare what result the giver obtains
    after death, if he gives food, destined for the gods or
    manes, to a man who is unworthy to sit in the com-
    pany. 170. The Rakshasas, indeed, consume (the food)
    eaten by Brahmanas who have not ful lled the vow of
    studentship, by a Parivettri and so forth, and by other
    men not admissible into the company. 171. He must
    be considered as a Parivettri who marries or begins the
    performance of the Agnihotra before his elder brother,
    but the latter as a Parivitti. 172. The elder brother
    who marries after the younger, the younger brother who
    marries before the elder, the female with whom such a
    marriage is contracted, he who gives her away, and the
    sacri cing priest, as the fth, all fall into hell. 173. He
    who lasciviously dallies with the widow of a deceased
    brother, though she be appointed (to bear a child by
    him) in accordance with the sacred law, must be known
    to be a Didhishupati. 174. Two (kinds of) sons, a Kunda
    and a Golaka, are born by wives of other men; (he who is
    born) while the husband lives, will be a Kunda, and (he
    who is begotten) after the husband's death, a Golaka.
    175. But those two creatures, who are born of wives of
    other men, cause to the giver the loss (of the rewards),
    both in this life and after death, for the food sacred to
    gods or manes which has been given (to them). 176.
    The foolish giver (of a funeral repast) does not reap the
    reward for as manyworthy guests as a man, inadmissible
    into company, can look on while they are feeding. 177.
    A blind man by his presence causes to the giver (of the
    feast) the loss of the reward for ninety (guests), a one-
    eyed man for sixty, one who su ers from white leprosy
    for a hundred, and one punished by a (terrible) disease
    for a thousand. 178. The giver (of a Sraddha) loses the
    reward, due for such a non-sacri cial gift, for as many
    Brahmanas as a (guest) who sacri ces for Sudras may
    touch (during the meal) with his limbs. 179. And if a
    Brahmana, though learned in the Veda, accepts through
    covetousness a gift from such (a man), he will quickly
    perish, like a vessel of unburnt clay in water. 180 (Food)
    given to a seller of Soma becomes ordure, (that given)
    to a physician pus and blood, but (that presented) to a
    temple-priest is lost, and (that given) to a usurer nds
    no place (in the world of the gods). 181. What has
    been given to a Brahmana who lives by trade that is
    not (useful) in this world and the next, and (a present)
    to a Brahmana born of a remarried woman (resembles)
    an oblation thrown into ashes. 182. But the wise de-
    clare that the food which (is o ered) to other unholy,
    inadmissible men, enumerated above, (is turned into)
    adipose secretions, blood,
    esh, marrow, and bone.
    183. Now hear by what chief of twice-born men a
    company de led by (the presence of) unworthy (guests)
    is puri ed, and the full (description of) the Brahmanas
    who sanctify a company. 184. Those men must be con-
    sidered as the sancti ers of a company who are most
    learned in all the Vedas and in all the Angas, and who
    are the descendants of Srotriyas. 185. A Trinakiketa,
    one who keeps ve sacred res, a Trisuparna, one who
    is versed in the six Angas, the son of a woman mar-
    ried according to the Brahma rite, one who sings the
    Gyeshthasaman, 186. One who knows the meaning of
    the Veda, and he who expounds it, a student, one who
    has given a thousand (cows), and a centenarian must be
    considered as Brahmanas who sanctify a company. 187.
    On the day before the Sraddha-rite is performed, or on
    the day when it takes place, let him invite with due re-
    spect at least three Brahmanas, such as have been men-
    tioned above. 188. A Brahmana who has been invited
    to a (rite) in honour of the manes shall always control
    himself and not recite the Veda, and he who performs
    the Sraddha (must act in the same manner). 189. For
    the manes attend the invited Brahmanas, follow them
    (when they walk) like the wind, and sit near them when
    they are seated. 190. But a Brahmana who, being duly
    invited to a rite in honour of the gods or of the manes, in
    any way breaks (the appointment), becomes guilty (of
    a crime), and (in his next birth) a hog. 191. But he
    who, being invited to a Sraddha, dallies with a Sudra
    woman, takes upon himself all the sins which the giver
    (of the feast) committed. 192. The manes are primeval
    deities, free from anger, careful of purity, ever chaste,
    averse from strife, and endowed with great virtues.
    193. Now learn fully from whom all these (manes de-
    rive) their origin, and with what ceremonies they ought
    to be worshipped. 194. The (various) classes of the
    manes are declared to be the sons of all those sages,
    Mariki and the rest, who are children of Manu, the son
    of Hiranyagarbha. 195. The Somasads, the sons of Vi-
    rag, are stated to be the manes of the Sadhyas, and the
    Agnishvattas, the children of Mariki, are famous in the
    world (as the manes) of the gods. 196. The Barhishads,
    born of Atri, are recorded to be (the manes) of the
    Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Snake-deities,
    Rakshasas, Suparnas, and a Kimnaras, 197. The Soma-
    pas those of the Brahmanas, the Havirbhugs those of
    the Kshatriyas, the Agyapas those of the Vaisyas, but
    the Sukalins those of the Sudras. 198. The Somapas are
    the sons of Kavi (Bhrigu), the Havishmats the children
    of Angiras, the Agyapas the o spring of Pulastya, but
    the Sukalins (the issue) of Vasishtha. 199. One should
    know that (other classes), the Agnidagdhas, the Anag-
    nidagdhas, the Kavyas, the Barhishads, the Agnishvat-
    tas, and the Saumyas, are (the manes) of the Brahmanas
    alone. 200. But know also that there exist in this (world)
    countless sons and grandsons of those chief classes of
    manes which have been enumerated. 201. From the
    sages sprang the manes, from the manes the gods and
    the Danavas, but from the gods the whole world, both
    the movable and the immovable in due order. 202. Even
    water o ered with faith (to the manes) in vessels made
    of silver or adorned with silver, produces endless (bliss).
    203. For twice-born men the rite in honour of the manes
    is more important than the rite in honour of the gods; for
    the o ering to the gods which precedes (the Sraddhas),
    has been declared to be a means of fortifying (the lat-
    ter). 204. Let him rst invite a (Brahmana) in honour of
    the gods as a protection for the (o ering to the manes);
    for the Rakshasas destroy a funeral sacri ce which is
    left without such a protection. 205. Let him make (the
    Sraddha) begin and end with (a rite) in honour of the
    gods; it shall not begin and end with a (rite) to the
    manes; for he who makes it begin and end with a (rite)
    in honour of the manes, soon perishes together with his
    progeny. 206. Let him smear a pure and secluded place
    with cowdung, and carefully make it sloping towards the
    south. 207. The manes are always pleased with o er-
    ings made in open, naturally pure places, on the banks
    of rivers, and in secluded spots. 208. The (sacri cer)
    shall make the (invited) Brahmanas, who have duly per-
    formed their ablutions, sit down on separate, prepared
    seats, on which blades of Kusa grass have been placed.
    209. Having placed those blameless Brahmanas on their
    seats, he shall honour them with fragrant garlands and
    perfumes, beginning with (those who are invited in hon-
    our of) the gods. 210. Having presented to them water,
    sesamum grains, and blades of Kusa grass, the Brah-
    mana (sacri cer) shall o er (oblations) in the sacred re,
    after having received permission (to do so) from (all) the
    Brahmana (guests) conjointly. 211. Having rst, accord-
    ing to the rule, performed, as a means of protecting (the
    Sraddha), oblations to Agni, to Soma, and to Yama, let
    him afterwards satisfy the manes by a gift of sacri cial
    food. 212. But if no (sacred) re (is available), he shall
    place (the o erings) into the hand of a Brahmana; for
    Brahmanas who know the sacred texts declare, 'What
    re is, even such is a Brahmana.' 213. They (also) call
    those rst of twice-born men the ancient deities of the fu-
    neral sacri ce, free from anger, easily pleased, employed
    in making men prosper. 214. After he has performed
    (the oblations) in the re, (and) the whole series of cer-
    emonies in such a manner that they end in the south,
    let him sprinkle water with his right hand on the spot
    (where the cakes are to be placed). 215. But having
    made three cakes out of the remainder of that sacri cial
    food, he must, concentrating his mind and turning to-
    wards the south, place them on (Kusa grass) exactly in
    the same manner in which (he poured out the libations
    of) water. 216. Having o ered those cakes according to
    the (prescribed) rule, being pure, let him wipe the same
    hand with (the roots of) those blades of Kusa grass for
    the sake of the (three ancestors) who partake of the wip-
    ings (lepa). 217. Having (next) sipped water, turned
    round (towards the north), and thrice slowly suppressed
    his breath, (the sacri cer) who knows the sacred texts
    shall worship (the guardian deities of) the six seasons
    and the manes. 218. Let him gently pour out the re-
    mainder of the water near the cakes, and, with xed
    attention, smell those cakes, in the order in which they
    were placed (on the ground). 219. But taking succes-
    sively very small portions from the cakes, he shall make
    those seated Brahmana eat them, in accordance with
    the rule, before (their dinner). 220. But if the (sacri -
    cer's) father is living, he must o er (the cakes) to three
    remoter (ancestors); or he may also feed his father at
    the funeral sacri ce as (one of the) Brahmana (guests).
    221. But he whose father is dead, while his grandfather
    lives, shall, after pronouncing his father's name, mention
    (that of) his great-grandfather. 222. Manu has declared
    that either the grandfather may eat at that Sraddha
    (as a guest), or (the grandson) having received permis-
    sion, may perform it, as he desires. 223. Having poured
    water mixed with sesamum, in which a blade of Kusa
    grass has been placed, into the hands of the (guests),
    he shall give (to each) that (above-mentioned) portion
    of the cake, saying, 'To those, Svadha!' 224. But car-
    rying (the vessel) lled with food with both hands, the
    (sacri cer) himself shall gently place it before the Brah-
    manas, meditating on the manes. 225. The malevolent
    Asuras forcibly snatch away that food which is brought
    without being held with both hands. 226. Let him, be-
    ing pure and attentive, carefully place on the ground the
    seasoning (for the rice), such as broths and pot herbs,
    sweet and sour milk, and honey, 227. (As well as) vari-
    ous (kinds of) hard food which require mastication, and
    of soft food, roots, fruits, savoury meat, and fragrant
    drinks. 228. All this he shall present (to his guests), be-
    ing pure and attentive, successively invite them to par-
    take of each (dish), proclaiming its qualities. 229. Let
    him on no account drop a tear, become angry or utter
    an untruth, nor let him touch the food with his foot nor
    violently shake it. 230. A tear sends the (food) to the
    Pretas, anger to his enemies, a falsehood to the dogs,
    contact with his foot to the Rakshasas, a shaking to the
    sinners. 231. Whatever may please the Brahmanas, let
    him give without grudging it; let him give riddles from
    the Veda, for that is agreeable to the manes. 232. At
    a (sacri ce in honour) of the manes, he must let (his
    guests) hear the Veda, the Institutes of the sacred law,
    legends, tales, Puranas, and Khilas. 233. Himself being
    delighted, let him give delight to the Brahmanas, cause
    them to partake gradually and slowly (of each dish), and
    repeatedly invite (them to eat) by (o ering) the food and
    (praising) its qualities. 234. Let him eagerly entertain
    at a funeral sacri ce a daughter's son, though he be a
    student, and let him place a Nepal blanket on the on the
    seat (of each guest), scattering sesamum grains on the
    ground. 235. There are three means of sancti cation, (to
    be used) at a Sraddha, a daughter's son, a Nepal blan-
    ket, and sesamum grains; and they recommend three
    (other things) for it, cleanliness, suppression of anger,
    and absence of haste. 236. All the food must be very
    hot, and the (guests) shall eat in silence; (even though)
    asked by the giver (of the feast), the Brahmanas shall
    not proclaim the qualities of the sacri cial food. 237. As
    long as the food remains warm, as long as they eat in
    silence, as long as the qualities of the food are not pro-
    claimed, so long the manes partake (of it). 238. What
    (a guest) eats, covering his head, what he eats with his
    face turned towards the south, what he eats with san-
    dals on (his feet), that the Rakshasas consume. 239. A
    Kandala, a village pig, a ****, a dog, a menstruating
    woman, and a eunuch must not look at the Brahmanas
    while they eat. 240. What (any of) these sees at a
    burnt-oblation, at a (solemn) gift, at a dinner (given to
    Brahmanas), or at any rite in honour of the gods and
    manes, that produces not the intended result. 241. A
    boar makes (the rite) useless by inhaling the smell (of
    the o erings), a **** by the air of his wings, a dog by
    throwing his eye (on them), a low-caste man by touch-
    ing (them). 242. If a lame man, a one-eyed man, one
    de cient in a limb, or one with a redundant limb, be
    even the servant of the performer (of the Sraddha), he
    must be removed from that place (where the Sraddha
    is held). 243. To a Brahmana (householder), or to an
    ascetic who comes for food, he may, with the permission
    of (his) Brahmana (guests), show honour according to
    his ability. 244. Let him mix all the kinds of food to-
    gether, sprinkle them with water and put them, scatter-
    ing them (on Kusa grass), down on the ground in front
    of (his guests), when they have nished their meal. 245.
    The remnant (in the dishes), and the portion scattered
    on Kusa grass, shall be the share of deceased (children)
    who received not the sacrament (of cremation) and of
    those who (unjustly) forsook noble wives. 246. They
    declare the fragments which have fallen on the ground
    at a (Sraddha) to the manes, to be the share of honest,
    dutiful servants. 247. But before the performance of
    the Sapindikarana, one must feed at the funeral sacri ce
    in honour of a (recently-) deceased Aryan (one Brah-
    mana) without (making an o ering) to the gods, and
    give one cake only. 248. But after the Sapindikarana of
    the (deceased father) has been performed according to
    the sacred law, the sons must o er the cakes with those
    ceremonies, (described above.) 249. The foolish man
    who, after having eaten a Sraddha (-dinner), gives the
    leavings to a Sudra, falls headlong into the Kalasutra
    hell. 250. If the partaker of a Sraddha (-dinner) enters
    on the same day the bed of a Sudra female, the manes
    of his (ancestors) will lie during that month in her or-
    dure. 251. Having addressed the question, 'Have you
    dined well?' (to his guests), let him give water for sip-
    ping to them who are satis ed, and dismiss them, after
    they have sipped water, (with the words) 'Rest either
    (here or at home)!' 252. The Brahmana (guests) shall
    then answer him, 'Let there be Svadha;' for at all rites
    in honour of the manes the word Svadha is the highest
    benison. 253. Next let him inform (his guests) who have
    nished their meal, of the food which remains; with the
    permission of the Brahmanas let him dispose (of that),
    as they may direct. 254. At a (Sraddha) in honour of
    the manes one must use (in asking of the guests if they
    are satis ed, the word) svaditam; at a Goshthi-sraddha,
    (the word) susrutam; at a Vriddhi-sraddha, (the word)
    sampannam; and at (a rite) in honour of the gods, (the
    word) rukitam. 255. The afternoon, Kusa grass, the due
    preparation of the dwelling, sesamum grains, liberality,
    the careful preparation of the food, and (the company
    of) distinguished Brahmanas are true riches at all fu-
    neral sacri ces. 256. Know that Kusa grass, puri ca-
    tory (texts), the morning, sacri cial viands of all kinds,
    and those means of puri cation, mentioned above, are
    blessings at a sacri ce to the gods. 257. The food eaten
    by hermits in the forest, milk, Soma-juice, meat which is
    not prepared (with spices), and salt unprepared by art,
    are called, on account of their nature, sacri cial food.
    258. Having dismissed the (invited) Brahmanas, let him,
    with a concentrated mind, silent and pure, look towards
    the south and ask these blessings of the manes: 259.
    'May liberal men abound with us! May (our knowledge
    of) the Vedas and (our) progeny increase! May faith not
    forsake us! May we have much to give (to the needy)!'
    260. Having thus o ered (the cakes), let him, after (the
    prayer), cause a cow, a Brahmana, a goat, or the sacred
    re to consume those cakes, or let him throw them into
    water. 261. Some make the o ering of the cakes after
    (the dinner); some cause (them) to be eaten by birds or
    throw them into re or into water. 262. The (sacri cer's)
    rst wife, who is faithful and intent on the worship of
    the manes, may eat the middle-most cake, (if she be) de-
    sirous of bearing a son. 263. (Thus) she will bring forth
    a son who will be long-lived, famous, intelligent, rich, the
    father of numerous o spring, endowed with (the quality
    of) goodness, and righteous. 264. Having washed his
    hands and sipped water, let him prepare (food) for his
    paternal relations and, after giving it to them with due
    respect, let him feed his maternal relatives also. 265.
    But the remnants shall be left (where they lie) until the
    Brahmanas have been dismissed; afterwards he shall per-
    form the (daily) domestic Bali-o ering; that is a settled
    (rule of the) sacred law.
    266. I will now fully declare what kind of sacri cial
    food, given to the manes according to the rule, will serve
    for a long time or for eternity. 267. The ancestors of men
    are satis ed for one month with sesamum grains, rice,
    barley, masha beans, water, roots, and fruits, which have
    been given according to the prescribed rule, 268. Two
    months with sh, three months with the meat of gazelles,
    four with mutton, and ve indeed with the
    esh of birds,
    269. Six months with the
    esh of kids, seven with that
    of spotted deer, eight with that of the black antelope,
    but nine with that of the (deer called) Ruru, 270. Ten
    months they are satis ed with the meat of boars and
    bu aloes, but eleven months indeed with that of hares
    and tortoises, 271. One year with cow-milk and milk-
    rice; from the
    esh of a long-eared white he-goat their
    satisfaction endures twelve years. 272. The (vegetable
    called) Kalasaka, (the sh called) Mahasalka, the
    of a rhinoceros and that of a red goat, and all kinds of
    food eaten by hermits in the forest serve for an endless
    time. 273. Whatever (food), mixed with honey, one
    gives on the thirteenth lunar day in the rainy season
    under the asterism of Maghah, that also procures end-
    less (satisfaction). 274. 'May such a man (the manes
    say) be born in our family who will give us milk-rice,
    with honey and clari ed butter, on the thirteenth lu-
    nar day (of the month of Bhadrapada) and (in the af-
    ternoon) when the shadow of an elephant falls towards
    the east.' 275. Whatever (a man), full of faith, duly
    gives according to the prescribed rule, that becomes in
    the other world a perpetual and imperishable (grati -
    cation) for the manes. 276. The days of the dark half
    of the month, beginning with the tenth, but excepting
    the fourteenth, are recommended for a funeral sacri ce;
    (it is) not thus (with) the others. 277. He who per-
    forms it on the even (lunar) days and under the even
    constellations, gains (the ful lment of) all his wishes;
    he who honours the manes on odd (lunar days) and un-
    der odd (constellations), obtains distinguished o spring.
    278. As the second half of the month is preferable to the
    rst half, even so the afternoon is better for (the perfor-
    mance of) a funeral sacri ce than the forenoon. 279. Let
    him, untired, duly perform the (rites) in honour of the
    manes in accordance with the prescribed rule, passing
    the sacred thread over the right shoulder, proceeding
    from the left to the right (and) holding Kusa grass in
    his hands, up to the end (of the ceremony). 280. Let
    him not perform a funeral sacri ce at night, because the
    (night) is declared to belong to the Rakshasas, nor in
    the twilight, nor when the sun has just risen. 281. Let
    him o er here below a funeral sacri ce, according to the
    rule given above, (at least) thrice a year, in winter, in
    summer, and in the rainy season, but that which is in-
    cluded among the ve great sacri ces, every day. 282.
    The burnt-oblation, o ered at a sacri ce to the manes,
    must not be made in a common re; a Brahmana who
    keeps a sacred re (shall) not (perform) a funeral sac-
    ri ce except on the new-moon day. 283. Even when a
    Brahmana, after bathing, satis es the manes with water,
    he obtains thereby the whole reward for the performance
    of the (daily) Sraddha. 284. They call (the manes of) fa-
    thers Vasus, (those of) grandfathers Rudras, and (those
    of) great-grandfathers Adityas; thus (speaks) the eter-
    nal Veda. 285. Let him daily partake of the vighasa and
    daily eat amrita (ambrosia); but vighasa is what remains
    from the meal (of Brahmana guests) and the remainder
    of a sacri ce (is called) amrita. 286. Thus all the ordi-
    nances relating to the ve (daily great) sacri ces have
    been declared to you; hear now the law for the manner
    of living t for Brahmanas.
    1. Having dwelt with a teacher during the fourth
    part of (a man's) life, a Brahmana shall live during the
    second quarter (of his existence) in his house, after he
    has wedded a wife. 2. A Brahmana must seek a means
    of subsistence which either causes no, or at least little
    pain (to others), and live (by that) except in times of
    distress. 3. For the purpose of gaining bare subsistence,
    let him accumulate property by (following those) irre-
    proachable occupations (which are prescribed for) his
    (caste), without (unduly) fatiguing his body. 4. He
    may subsist by Rita (truth), and Amrita (ambrosia), or
    by Mrita (death) and by Pramrita (what causes many
    deaths); or even by (the mode) called Satyanrita (a mix-
    ture of truth and falsehood), but never by Svavritti (a
    dog's mode of life). 5. By Rita shall be understood
    the gleaning of corn; by Amrita, what is given unasked;
    by Mrita, food obtained by begging and agriculture is
    declared to be Pramrita. 6. But trade and (money-
    lending) are Satyanrita, even by that one may subsist.
    Service is called Svavritti; therefore one should avoid it.
    7. He may either possess enough to ll a granary, or a
    store lling a grain-jar; or he may collect what suces
    for three days, or make no provision for the morrow.
    8. Moreover, among these four Brahmana household-
    ers, each later-(named) must be considered more dis-
    tinguished, and through his virtue to have conquered
    the world more completely. 9. One of these follows
    six occupations, another subsists by three, one by two,
    but the fourth lives by the Brahmasattra. 10. He who
    maintains himself by picking up grains and ears of corn,
    must be always intent on (the performance of) the Ag-
    nihotra, and constantly o er those Ishtis only, which are
    prescribed for the days of the conjunction and opposi-
    tion (of the moon), and for the solstices. 11. Let him
    never, for the sake of subsistence, follow the ways of the
    world; let him live the pure, straightforward, honest life
    of a Brahmana. 12. He who desires happiness must
    strive after a perfectly contented disposition and control
    himself; for happiness has contentment for its root, the
    root of unhappiness is the contrary (disposition). 13. A
    Brahmana, who is a Snataka and subsists by one of the
    (above-mentioned) modes of life,must discharge the (fol-
    lowing) duties which secure heavenly bliss, long life, and
    fame. 14. Let him, untired, perform daily the rites pre-
    scribed for him in the Veda; for he who performs those
    according to his ability, attains to the highest state. 15.
    Whether he be rich or even in distress, let him not seek
    wealth through pursuits to which men cleave, nor by for-
    bidden occupations, nor (let him accept presents) from
    any (giver whosoever he may be). 16. Let him not, out
    of desire (for enjoyments), attach himself to any sensual
    pleasures, and let him carefully obviate an excessive at-
    tachment to them, by (re
    ecting on their worthlessness
    in) his heart. 17. Let him avoid all (means of acquir-
    ing) wealth which impede the study of the Veda; (let
    him maintain himself) anyhow, but study, because that
    (devotion to the Veda-study secures) the realisation of
    his aims. 18. Let him walk here (on earth), bringing
    his dress, speech, and thoughts to a conformity with his
    age, his occupation, his wealth, his sacred learning, and
    his race. 19. Let him daily pore over those Institutes of
    science which soon give increase of wisdom, those which
    teach the acquisition of wealth, those which are bene -
    cial (for other worldly concerns), and likewise over the
    Nigamas which explain the Veda. 20. For the more
    a man completely studies the Institutes of science, the
    more he fully understands (them), and his great learn-
    ing shines brightly. 21. Let him never, if he is able
    (to perform them), neglect the sacri ces to the sages,
    to the gods, to the Bhutas, to men, and to the manes.
    22. Some men who know the ordinances for sacri cial
    rites, always o er these great sacri ces in their organs
    (of sensation), without any (external) e ort. 23. Know-
    ing that the (performance of the) sacri ce in their speech
    and their breath yields imperishable (rewards), some al-
    ways o er their breath in their speech, and their speech
    in their breath. 24. Other Brahmanas, seeing with the
    eye of knowledge that the performance of those rites has
    knowledge for its root, always perform them through
    knowledge alone. 25. A Brahmana shall always o er
    the Agnihotra at the beginning or at the end of the day
    and of the night, and the Darsa and Paurnamasa (Ishtis)
    at the end of each half-month, 26. When the old grain
    has been consumed the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain,
    at the end of the (three) seasons the (Katurmasya-) sac-
    ri ces, at the solstices an animal (sacri ce), at the end
    of the year Soma-o erings. 27. A Brahmana, who keeps
    sacred res, shall, if he desires to live long, not eat new
    grain or meat, without having o ered the (Agrayana)
    Ishti with new grain and an animal-(sacri ce). 28. For
    his res, not being worshipped by o erings of new grain
    and of an animal, seek to devour his vital spirits, (be-
    cause they are) greedy for new grain and
    esh. 29. No
    guest must stay in his house without being honoured,
    according to his ability, with a seat, food, a couch, wa-
    ter, or roots and fruits. 30. Let him not honour, even
    by a greeting, heretics, men who follow forbidden occu-
    pations, men who live like cats, rogues, logicians, (argu-
    ing against the Veda,) and those who live like herons.
    31. Those who have become Snatakas after studying
    the Veda, or after completing their vows, (and) house-
    holders, who are Srotriyas, one must worship by (gifts
    of food) sacred to gods and manes, but one must avoid
    those who are di erent. 32. A householder must give
    (as much food) as he is able (to spare) to those who do
    not cook for themselves, and to all beings one must dis-
    tribute (food) without detriment (to one's own interest).
    33. A Snataka who pines with hunger, may beg wealth
    of a king, of one for whom he sacri ces, and of a pupil,
    but not of others; that is a settled rule. 34. A Snataka
    who is able (to procure food) shall never waste him-
    self with hunger, nor shall he wear old or dirty clothes,
    if he possesses property. 35. Keeping his hair, nails,
    and beard clipped, subduing his passions by austerities,
    wearing white garments and (keeping himself) pure, he
    shall be always engaged in studying the Veda and (such
    acts as are) conducive to his welfare. 36. He shall carry
    a sta of bamboo, a pot full of water, a sacred string,
    a bundle of Kusa grass, and (wear) two bright golden
    ear-rings. 37. Let him never look at the sun, when he
    sets or rises, is eclipsed or re
    ected in water, or stands in
    the middle of the sky. 38. Let him not step over a rope
    to which a calf is tied, let him not run when it rains,
    and let him not look at his own image in water; that is
    a settled rule. 39. Let him pass by (a mound of) earth,
    a cow, an idol, a Brahmana, clari ed butter, honey, a
    crossway, and well-known trees, turning his right hand
    towards them. 40. Let him, though mad with desire,
    not approach his wife when her courses appear; nor let
    him sleep with her in the same bed. 41. For the wisdom,
    the energy, the strength, the sight, and the vitality of a
    man who approaches a woman covered with menstrual
    excretions, utterly perish. 42. If he avoids her, while
    she is in that condition, his wisdom, energy, strength,
    sight, and vitality will increase. 43. Let him not eat in
    the company of his wife, nor look at her, while she eats,
    sneezes, yawns, or sits at her ease. 44. A Brahmana who
    desires energy must not look at (a woman) who applies
    collyrium to her eyes, has anointed or uncovered herself
    or brings forth (a child). 45. Let him not eat, dressed
    with one garment only; let him not bathe naked; let him
    not void urine on a road, on ashes, or in a cow-pen, 46.
    Nor on ploughed land, in water, on an altar of bricks,
    on a mountain, on the ruins of a temple, nor ever on an
    ant-hill, 47. Nor in holes inhabited by living creatures,
    nor while he walks or stands, nor on reaching the bank
    of a river, nor on the top of a mountain. 48. Let him
    never void faeces or urine, facing the wind, or a re, or
    looking towards a Brahmana, the sun, water, or cows.
    49. He may ease himself, having covered (the ground)
    with sticks, clods, leaves, grass, and the like, restrain-
    ing his speech, (keeping himself) pure, wrapping up his
    body, and covering his head. 50. Let him void faeces
    and urine, in the daytime turning to the north, at night
    turning towards the south, during the two twilights in
    the same (position) as by day. 51. In the shade or in
    darkness a Brahmana may, both by day and at night, do
    it, assuming any position he pleases; likewise when his
    life is in danger. 52. The intellect of (a man) who voids
    urine against a re, the sun, the moon, in water, against
    a Brahmana, a cow, or the wind, perishes. 53. Let him
    not blow a re with his mouth; let him not look at a
    naked woman; let him not throw any impure substance
    into the re, and let him not warm his feet at it. 54. Let
    him not place ( re) under (a bed or the like); nor step
    over it, nor place it (when he sleeps) at the foot-(end of
    his bed); let him not torment living creatures. 55. Let
    him not eat, nor travel, nor sleep during the twilight;
    let him not scratch the ground; let him not take o his
    garland. 56. Let him not throw urine or faeces into the
    water, nor saliva, nor (clothes) de led by impure sub-
    stances, nor any other (impurity), nor blood, nor poi-
    sonous things. 57. Let him not sleep alone in a deserted
    dwelling; let him not wake (a superior) who is sleeping;
    let him not converse with a menstruating woman; nor let
    him go to a sacri ce, if he is not chosen (to be ociating
    priest). 58. Let him keep his right arm uncovered in a
    place where a sacred re is kept, in a cow-pen, in the
    presence of Brahmanas, during the private recitation of
    the Veda, and at meals. 59. Let him not interrupt a cow
    who is suckling (her calf), nor tell anybody of it. A wise
    man, if he sees a rainbow in the sky, must not point it
    out to anybody. 60. Let him not dwell in a village where
    the sacred law is not obeyed, nor (stay) long where dis-
    eases are endemic; let him not go alone on a journey,
    nor reside long on a mountain. 61. Let him not dwell in
    a country where the rulers are Sudras, nor in one which
    is surrounded by unrighteous men, nor in one which has
    become subject to heretics, nor in one swarming with
    men of the lowest castes. 62. Let him not eat anything
    from which the oil has been extracted; let him not be
    a glutton; let him not eat very early (in the morning),
    nor very late (in the evening), nor (take any food) in the
    evening, if he has eaten (his ll) in the morning. 63. Let
    him not exert himself without a purpose; let him not
    drink water out of his joined palms; let him not eat food
    (placed) in his lap; let him not show (idle) curiosity. 64.
    Let him not dance, nor sing, nor play musical instru-
    ments, nor slap (his limbs), nor grind his teeth, nor let
    him make uncouth noises, though he be in a passion. 65.
    Let him never wash his feet in a vessel of white brass;
    let him not eat out of a broken (earthen) dish, nor out
    of one that (to judge) from its appearance (is) de led.
    66. Let him not use shoes, garments, a sacred string,
    ornaments, a garland, or a water-vessel which have been
    used by others. 67. Let him not travel with untrained
    beasts of burden, nor with (animals) that are tormented
    by hunger or disease, or whose horns, eyes, and hoofs
    have been injured, or whose tails have been dis gured.
    68. Let him always travel with (beasts) which are well
    broken in, swift, endowed with lucky marks, and perfect
    in colour and form, without urging them much with the
    goad. 69. The morning sun, the smoke rising from a
    (burning) corpse, and a broken seat must be avoided.
    Let him not clip his nails or hair, and not tear his nails
    with his teeth. 70. Let him not crush earth or clods, nor
    tear o grass with his nails; let him not do anything that
    is useless or will have disagreeable results in the future.
    71. A man who crushes clods, tears o grass, or bites his
    nails, goes soon to perdition, likewise an informer and
    he who neglects (the rules of) puri cation. 72. Let him
    not wrangle; let him not wear a garland over (his hair).
    To ride on the back of cows (or of oxen) is anyhow a
    blamable act. 73. Let him not enter a walled village or
    house except by the gate, and by night let him keep at a
    long distance from the roots of trees. 74. Let him never
    play with dice, nor himself take o his shoes; let him not
    eat, lying on a bed, nor what has been placed in his hand
    or on a seat. 75. Let him not eat after sunset any (food)
    containing sesamum grains; let him never sleep naked,
    nor go anywhere unpuri ed (after meals). 76. Let him
    eat while his feet are (yet) wet (from the ablution), but
    let him not go to bed with wet feet. He who eats while
    his feet are (still) wet, will attain long life. 77. Let him
    never enter a place, dicult of access, which is imper-
    vious to his eye; let him not look at urine or ordure,
    nor cross a river (swimming) with his arms. 78. Let
    him not step on hair, ashes, bones, potsherds, cotton-
    seed or cha , if he desires long life. 79. Let him not
    stay together with outcasts, nor with Kandalas, nor with
    Pukkasas, nor with fools, nor with overbearing men, nor
    with low-caste men, nor with Antyavasayins. 80. Let
    him not give to a Sudra advice, nor the remnants (of his
    meal), nor food o ered to the gods; nor let him explain
    the sacred law (to such a man), nor impose (upon him)
    a penance. 81. For he who explains the sacred law (to a
    Sudra) or dictates to him a penance, will sink together
    with that (man) into the hell (called) Asamvrita. 82.
    Let him not scratch his head with both hands joined;
    let him not touch it while he is impure, nor bathe with-
    out (submerging) it. 83. Let him avoid (in anger) to
    lay hold of (his own or other men's) hair, or to strike
    (himself or others) on the head. When he has bathed
    (submerging) his head, he shall not touch any of his
    limbs with oil. 84. Let him not accept presents from
    a king who is not descended from the Kshatriya race,
    nor from butchers, oil-manufacturers, and publicans, nor
    from those who subsist by the gain of prostitutes. 85.
    One oil-press is as (bad) as ten slaughter-houses, one
    tavern as (bad as) ten oil-presses, one brothel as (bad
    as) ten taverns, one king as (bad as) ten brothels. 86. A
    king is declared to be equal (in wickedness) to a butcher
    who keeps a hundred thousand slaughter-houses; to ac-
    cept presents from him is a terrible (crime). 87. He who
    accepts presents from an avaricious king who acts con-
    trary to the Institutes (of the sacred law), will go in suc-
    cession to the following twenty-one hells: 88. Tamisra,
    Andhatamisra, Maharaurava, Raurava, the Kalasutra
    hell, Mahanaraka, 89. Samgivana, Mahaviki, Tapana,
    Sampratapana, Samghata, Sakakola, Kudmala, Putim-
    rittika, 90. Lohasanku, Rigisha, Pathin, the (
    river, Salmala, Asi-patravana, and Loha-karaka. 91.
    Learned Brahmanas, who know that, who study the
    Veda and desire bliss after death, do not accept presents
    from a king. 92. Let him wake in the muhurta, sacred
    to Brahman, and think of (the acquisition of) spiritual
    merit and wealth, of the bodily fatigue arising therefrom,
    and of the true meaning of the Veda. 93. When he has
    risen, has relieved the necessities of nature and carefully
    puri ed himself, let him stand during the morning twi-
    light, muttering for a long time (the Gayatri), and at the
    proper time (he must similarly perform) the evening (de-
    votion). 94. By prolonging the twilight devotions, the
    sages obtained long life, wisdom, honour, fame, and ex-
    cellence in Vedic knowledge. 95. Having performed the
    Upakarman according to the prescribed rule on (the full
    moon of the month) Sravana, or on that of Praushtha-
    pada (Bhadrapada), a Brahmana shall diligently study
    the Vedas during four months and a half. 96. When the
    Pushya-day (of the month Pausha), or the rst day of
    the bright half of Magha has come, a Brahmana shall
    perform in the forenoon the Utsargana of the Vedas.
    97. Having performed the Utsarga outside (the village),
    as the Institutes (of the sacred law) prescribe, he shall
    stop reading during two days and the intervening night,
    or during that day (of the Utsarga) and (the following)
    night. 98. Afterwards he shall diligently recite the Vedas
    during the bright (halves of the months), and duly study
    all the Angas of the Vedas during the dark fortnights.
    99. Let him not recite (the texts) indistinctly, nor in
    the presence of Sudras; nor let him, if in the latter part
    of the night he is tired with reciting the Veda, go again
    to sleep. 100. According to the rule declared above, let
    him recite the daily (portion of the) Mantras, and a zeal-
    ous Brahmana, (who is) not in distress, (shall study) the
    Brahmana and the Mantrasamhita. 101. Let him who
    studies always avoid (reading) on the following occasions
    when the Veda-study is forbidden, and (let) him who
    teaches pupils according to the prescribed rule (do it
    likewise). 102. Those who know the (rules of) recitation
    declare that in the rainy season the Veda-study must
    be stopped on these two (occasions), when the wind is
    audible at night, and when it whirls up the dust in the
    day-time. 103. Manu has stated, that when lightning,
    thunder, and rain (are observed together), or when large
    ery meteors fall on all sides, the recitation must be in-
    terrupted until the same hour (on the next day, counting
    from the occurrence of the event). 104. When one per-
    ceives these (phenomena) all together (in the twilight),
    after the sacred res have been made to blaze (for the
    performance of the Agnihotra), then one must know the
    recitation of the Veda to be forbidden, and also when
    clouds appear out of season. 105. On (the occasion of)
    a preternatural sound from the sky, (of) an earthquake,
    and when the lights of heaven are surrounded by a halo,
    let him know that (the Veda-study must be) stopped un-
    til the same hour (on the next day), even if (these phe-
    nomena happen) in the (rainy) season. 106. But when
    lightning and the roar of thunder (are observed) after
    the sacred res have been made to blaze, the stoppage
    shall last as long as the light (of the sun or of the stars
    is visible); if the remaining (above-named phenomenon,
    rain, occurs, the reading shall cease), both in the day-
    time and at night. 107. For those who wish to acquire
    exceedingiy great merit, a continual interruption of the
    Veda-study (is prescribed) in villages and in towns, and
    (the Veda-study must) always (cease) when any kind of
    foul smell (is perceptible). 108. In a village where a
    corpse lies, in the presence of a (man who lives as un-
    righteously as a) Sudra, while (the sound of) weeping (is
    heard), and in a crowd of men the (recitation of the Veda
    must be) stopped. 109. In water, during the middle part
    of the night, while he voids excrements, or is impure, and
    after he has partaken of a funeral dinner, a man must
    not even think in his heart (of the sacred texts). 110. A
    learned Brahmana shall not recite the Veda during three
    days, when he has accepted an invitation to a (funeral
    rite) in honour of one ancestor (ekoddishta), or when the
    king has become impure through a birth or death in his
    family (sutaka), or when Rahu by an eclipse makes the
    moon impure. 111. As long as the smell and the stains
    of the (food given) in honour of one ancestor remain on
    the body of a learned Brahmana, so long he must not
    recite the Veda. 112. While lying on a bed, while his
    feet are raised (on a bench), while he sits on his hams
    with a cloth tied round his knees, let him not study, nor
    when he has eaten meat or food given by a person im-
    pure on account of a birth or a death, 113. Nor during a
    fog, nor while the sound of arrows is audible, nor during
    both the twilights, nor on the new-moon day, nor on the
    fourteenth and the eighth (days of each half-month), nor
    on the full-moon day. 114. The new-moon day destroys
    the teacher, the fourteenth (day) the pupil, the eighth
    and the full-moon days (destroy all remembrance of) the
    Veda; let him therefore avoid (reading on) those (days).
    115. A Brahmana shall not recite (the Veda) during a
    dust-storm, nor while the sky is preternaturally red, nor
    while jackals howl, nor while the barking of dogs, the
    braying of donkeys, or the grunting of camels (is heard),
    nor while (he is seated) in a company. 116. Let him not
    study near a burial-ground, nor near a village, nor in a
    cow-pen, nor dressed in a garment which he wore during
    conjugal intercourse, nor after receiving a present at a
    funeral sacri ce. 117. Be it an animal or a thing inani-
    mate, whatever be the (gift) at a Sraddha, let him not,
    having just accepted it, recite the Veda; for the hand
    of a Brahmana is his mouth. 118. When the village
    has been beset by robbers, and when an alarm has been
    raised by re, let him know that (the Veda-study must
    be) interrupted until the same hour (on the next day),
    and on (the occurrence of) all portents. 119. On (the
    occasion of) the Upakarman and (of) the Vedotsarga an
    omission (of the Veda-study) for three days has been
    prescribed, but on the Ashtakas and on the last nights
    of the seasons for a day and a night. 120. Let him not
    recite the Veda on horseback, nor on a tree, nor on an
    elephant, nor in a boat (or ship), nor on a donkey, nor
    on camel, nor standing on barren ground, nor riding in a
    carriage, 121. Nor during a verbal altercation, nor dur-
    ing a mutual assault, nor in a camp, nor during a battle,
    nor when he has just eaten, nor during an indigestion,
    nor after vomiting, nor with sour eructations, 122. Nor
    without receiving permission from a guest (who stays
    in his house), nor while the wind blows vehemently, nor
    while blood
    ows from his body, nor when he is wounded
    by a weapon. 123. Let him never recite the Rig-veda or
    the Yagur-veda while the Saman (melodies) are heard;
    (let him stop all Veda-study for a day and a night) af-
    ter nishing a Veda or after reciting an Aranyaka. 124.
    The Rig-veda is declared to be sacred to the gods, the
    Yagur-veda sacred to men, and the Sama-veda sacred to
    the manes; hence the sound of the latter is impure (as
    it were). 125. Knowing this, the learned daily repeat
    rst in due order the essence of the three (Vedas) and
    afterwards the (text of the) Veda. 126. Know that (the
    Veda-study must be) interrupted for a day and a night,
    when cattle, a frog, a cat, a dog, a snake, an ichneu-
    mon, or a rat pass between (the teacher and his pupil).
    127. Let a twice-born man always carefully interrupt
    the Veda-study on two (occasions, viz.) when the place
    where he recites is impure, and when he himself is un-
    puri ed. 128. A twice-born man who is a Snataka shall
    remain chaste on the new-moon day, on the eighth (lunar
    day of each half-month), on the full-moon day, and on
    the fourteenth, even (if they fall) in the period (proper
    for conjugal intercourse). 129. Let him not bathe (im-
    mediately) after a meal, nor when he is sick, nor in the
    middle of the night, nor frequently dressed in all his gar-
    ments, nor in a pool which he does not perfectly know.
    130. Let him not intentionally step on the shadow of
    (images of) the gods, of a Guru, of a king, of a Snataka,
    of his teacher, of a reddish-brown animal, or of one who
    has been initiated to the performance of a Srauta sacri-
    ce (Dikshita). 131. At midday and at midnight, after
    partaking of meat at a funeral dinner, and in the two
    twilights let him not stay long on a cross-road. 132. Let
    him not step intentionally on things used for cleansing
    the body, on water used for a bath, on urine or ordure,
    on blood, on mucus, and on anything spat out or vom-
    ited. 133. Let him not show particular attention to
    an enemy, to the friend of an enemy, to a wicked man,
    to a thief, or to the wife of another man. 134. For in
    this world there is nothing so detrimental to long life
    as criminal conversation with another man's wife. 135.
    Let him who desires prosperity, indeed, never despise a
    Kshatriya, a snake, and a learned Brahmana, be they
    ever so feeble. 136. Because these three, when treated
    with disrespect, may utterly destroy him; hence a wise
    man must never despise them. 137. Let him not despise
    himself on account of former failures; until death let him
    seek fortune, nor despair of gaining it. 138. Let him say
    what is true, let him say what is pleasing, let him utter
    no disagreeable truth, and let him utter no agreeable
    falsehood; that is the eternal law. 139. (What is) well,
    let him call well, or let him say 'well' only; let him not
    engage in a useless enmity or dispute with anybody. 140.
    Let him not journey too early in the morning, nor too
    late in the evening, nor just during the midday (heat),
    nor with an unknown (companion), nor alone, nor with
    Sudras. 141. Let him not insult those who have redun-
    dant limbs or are de cient in limbs, nor those destitute
    of knowledge, nor very aged men, nor those who have
    no beauty or wealth, nor those who are of low birth.
    142. A Brahmana who is impure must not touch with
    his hand a cow, a Brahmana, or re; nor, being in good
    health, let him look at the luminaries in the sky, while
    he is impure. 143. If he has touched these, while im-
    pure, let him always sprinkle with his hand water on the
    organs of sensation, all his limbs, and the navel. 144.
    Except when sick he must not touch the cavities (of the
    body) without a reason, and he must avoid (to touch)
    the hair on the secret (parts). 145. Let him eagerly
    follow the (customs which are) auspicious and the rule
    of good conduct, be careful of purity, and control all
    his organs, let him mutter (prayers) and, untired, daily
    o er oblations in the re. 146. No calamity happens
    to those who eagerly follow auspicious customs and the
    rule of good conduct, to those who are always careful of
    purity, and to those who mutter (sacred texts) and of-
    fer burnt-oblations. 147. Let him, without tiring, daily
    mutter the Veda at the proper time; for they declare
    that to be one's highest duty; (all) other (observances)
    are called secondary duties. 148. By daily reciting the
    Veda, by (the observance of the rules of) puri cation, by
    (practising) austerities, and by doing no injury to cre-
    ated beings, one (obtains the faculty of) remembering
    former births. 149. He who, recollecting his former ex-
    istences, again recites the Veda, gains endless bliss by
    the continual study of the Veda. 150. Let him always
    o er on the Parva-days oblations to Savitri and such as
    avert evil omens, and on the Ashtakas and Anvashtakas
    let him constantly worship the manes. 151. Far from
    his dwelling let him remove urine (and ordure), far (let
    him remove) the water used for washing his feet, and far
    the remnants of food and the water from his bath. 152.
    Early in the morning only let him void faeces, decorate
    (his body), bathe, clean his teeth, apply collyrium to his
    eyes, and worship the gods. 153. But on the Parva-days
    let him go to visit the (images of the) gods, and virtu-
    ous Brahmanas, and the ruler (of the country), for the
    sake of protection, as well as his Gurus. 154. Let him
    reverentially salute venerable men (who visit him), give
    them his own seat, let him sit near them with joined
    hands and, when they leave, (accompany them), walk-
    ing behind them. 155. Let him, untired, follow the con-
    duct of virtuous men, connected with his occupations,
    which has been fully declared in the revealed texts and
    in the sacred tradition (Smriti) and is the root of the
    sacred law. 156. Through virtuous conduct he obtains
    long life, through virtuous conduct desirable o spring,
    through virtuous conduct imperishable wealth; virtuous
    conduct destroys (the e ect of) inauspicious marks. 157.
    For a man of bad conduct is blamed among people, con-
    stantly su ers misfortunes, is aicted with diseases, and
    short-lived. 158. A man who follows the conduct of the
    virtuous, has faith and is free from envy, lives a hun-
    dred years, though he be entirely destitute of auspicious
    marks. 159. Let him carefully avoid all undertakings
    (the success of) which depends on others; but let him
    eagerly pursue that (the accomplishment of) which de-
    pends on himself. 160. Everything that depends on
    others (gives) pain, everything that depends on oneself
    (gives) pleasure; know that this is the short de nition of
    pleasure and pain. 161. When the performance of an act
    gladdens his heart, let him perform it with diligence; but
    let him avoid the opposite. 162. Let him never o end
    the teacher who initiated him, nor him who explained
    the Veda, nor his father and mother, nor (any other)
    Guru, nor cows, nor Brahmanas, nor any men perform-
    ing austerities. 163. Let him avoid atheism, cavilling at
    the Vedas, contempt of the gods, hatred, want of mod-
    esty, pride, anger, and harshness. 164. Let him, when
    angry, not raise a stick against another man, nor strike
    (anybody) except a son or a pupil; those two he may
    beat in order to correct them. 165. A twice-born man
    who has merely threatened a Brahmana with the inten-
    tion of (doing him) a corporal injury, will wander about
    for a hundred years in the Tamisra hell. 166. Having
    intentionally struck him in anger, even with a blade of
    grass, he will be born during twenty-one existences in the
    wombs (of such beings where men are born in punish-
    ment of their) sins. 167. A man who in his folly caused
    blood to
    ow from the body of a Brahmana who does
    not attack him, will su er after death exceedingly great
    pain. 168. As many particles of dust as the blood takes
    up from the ground, during so many years the spiller
    of the blood will be devoured by other (animals) in the
    next world. 169. A wise man should therefore never
    threaten a Brahmana, nor strike him even with a blade
    of grass, nor cause his blood to
    ow. 170. Neither a man
    who (lives) unrighteously, nor he who (acquires) wealth
    (by telling) falsehoods, nor he who always delights in
    doing injury, ever attain happiness in this world. 171.
    Let him, though su ering in consequence of his righ-
    teousness, never turn his heart to unrighteousness; for
    he will see the speedy overthrow of unrighteous, wicked
    men. 172. Unrighteousness, practised in this world, does
    not at once produce its fruit, like a cow; but, advancing
    slowly, it cuts o the roots of him who committed it.
    173. If (the punishment falls) not on (the o ender) him-
    self, (it falls) on his sons, if not on the sons, (at least) on
    his grandsons; but an iniquity (once) committed, never
    fails to produce fruit to him who wrought it. 174. He
    prospers for a while through unrighteousness, then he
    gains great good fortune, next he conquers his enemies,
    but (at last) he perishes (branch and) root. 175. Let
    him always delight in truthfulness, (obedience to) the
    sacred law, conduct worthy of an Aryan, and purity; let
    him chastise his pupils according to the sacred law; let
    him keep his speech, his arms, and his belly under con-
    trol. 176. Let him avoid (the acquisition of) wealth and
    (the grati cation of his) desires, if they are opposed to
    the sacred law, and even lawful acts which may cause
    pain in the future or are o ensive to men. 177. Let
    him not be uselessly active with his hands and feet, or
    with his eyes, nor crooked (in his ways), nor talk idly,
    nor injure others by deeds or even think of it. 178. Let
    him walk in that path of holy men which his fathers and
    his grandfathers followed; while he walks in that, he will
    not su er harm. 179. With an ociating or a domestic
    priest, with a teacher, with a maternal uncle, a guest
    and a dependant, with infants, aged and sick men, with
    learned men, with his paternal relatives, connexions by
    marriage and maternal relatives, 180. With his father
    and his mother, with female relatives, with a brother,
    with his son and his wife, with his daughter and with
    his slaves, let him not have quarrels. 181. If he avoids
    quarrels with these persons, he will be freed from all sins,
    and by suppressing (all) such (quarrels) a householder
    conquers all the following worlds. 182. The teacher is
    the lord of the world of Brahman, the father has power
    over the world of the Lord of created beings (Pragapati),
    a guest rules over the world of Indra, and the priests over
    the world of the gods. 183. The female relatives (have
    power) over the world of the Apsarases, the maternal
    relatives over that of the Visve Devas, the connexions
    by marriage over that of the waters, the mother and the
    maternal uncle over the earth. 184. Infants, aged, poor
    and sick men must be considered as rulers of the mid-
    dle sphere, the eldest brother as equal to one's father,
    one's wife and one's son as one's own body, 185. One's
    slaves as one's shadow, one's daughter as the highest ob-
    ject of tenderness; hence if one is o ended by (any one
    of) these, one must bear it without resentment. 186.
    Though (by his learning and sanctity) he may be enti-
    tled to accept presents, let him not attach himself (too
    much) to that (habit); for through his accepting (many)
    presents the divine light in him is soon extinguished.
    187. Without a full knowledge of the rules, prescribed
    by the sacred law for the acceptance of presents, a wise
    man should not take anything, even though he may pine
    with hunger. 188. But an ignorant (man) who accepts
    gold, land, a horse, a cow, food, a dress, sesamum-grains,
    (or) clari ed butter, is reduced to ashes like (a piece of)
    wood. 189. Gold and food destroy his longevity, land
    and a cow his body, a horse his eye (sight), a garment
    his skin, clari ed butter his energy, sesamum-grains his
    o spring. 190. A Brahmana who neither performs aus-
    terities nor studies the Veda, yet delights in accepting
    gifts, sinks with the (donor into hell), just as (he who
    attempts to cross over in) a boat made of stone (is sub-
    merged) in the water. 191. Hence an ignorant (man)
    should be afraid of accepting any presents; for by reason
    of a very small (gift) even a fool sinks (into hell) as a
    cow into a morass. 192. (A man) who knows the law
    should not o er even water to a Brahmana who acts like
    a cat, nor to a Brahmana who acts like a heron, nor to
    one who is unacquainted with the Veda. 193. For prop-
    erty, though earned in accordance with prescribed rules,
    which is given to these three (persons), causes in the next
    world misery both to the giver and to the recipient. 194.
    As he who (attempts to) cross water in a boat of stone
    sinks (to the bottom), even so an ignorant donor and an
    ignorant donee sink low. 195. (A man) who, ever cov-
    etous, displays the
    ag of virtue, (who is) a hypocrite,
    a deceiver of the people, intent on doing injury, (and) a
    detractor (from the merits) of all men, one must know
    to be one who acts like a cat. 196. That Brahmana, who
    with downcast look, of a cruel disposition, is solely intent
    on attaining his own ends, dishonest and falsely gentle,
    is one who acts like a heron. 197. Those Brahmanas who
    act like herons, and those who display the characteris-
    tics of cats, fall in consequence of that wicked mode of
    acting into (the hell called) Andhatamisra. 198. When
    he has committed a sin, let him not perform a penance
    under the pretence (that the act is intended to gain)
    spiritual merit, (thus) hiding his sin under (the pretext
    of) a vow and deceiving women and Sudras. 199. Such
    Brahmanas are reprehended after death and in this (life)
    by those who expound the Veda, and a vow, performed
    under a false pretence, goes to the Rakshasas. 200. He
    who, without being a student, gains his livelihood by
    (wearing) the dress of a student, takes upon himself the
    guilt of (all) students and is born again in the womb
    of an animal. 201. Let him never bathe in tanks be-
    longing to other men; if he bathes (in such a one), he is
    tainted by a portion of the guilt of him who made the
    tank. 202. He who uses without permission a carriage,
    a bed, a seat, a well, a garden or a house belonging to
    an (other man), takes upon himself one fourth of (the
    owner's) guilt. 203. Let him always bathe in rivers, in
    ponds, dug by the gods (themselves), in lakes, and in wa-
    terholes or springs. 204. A wise man should constantly
    discharge the paramount duties (called yama), but not
    always the minor ones (called niyama); for he who does
    not discharge the former, while he obeys the latter alone,
    becomes an outcast. 205. A Brahmana must never eat
    (a dinner given) at a sacri ce that is o ered by one who
    is not a Srotriya, by one who sacri ces for a multitude
    of men, by a woman, or by a eunuch. 206. When those
    persons o er sacri cial viands in the re, it is unlucky for
    holy (men) it displeases the gods; let him therefore avoid
    it. 207. Let him never eat (food given) by intoxicated,
    angry, or sick (men), nor that in which hair or insects are
    found, nor what has been touched intentionally with the
    foot, 208. Nor that at which the slayer of a learned Brah-
    mana has looked, nor that which has been touched by
    a menstruating woman, nor that which has been pecked
    at by birds or touched by a dog, 209. Nor food at which
    a cow has smelt, nor particularly that which has been
    o ered by an invitation to all comers, nor that (given)
    by a multitude or by harlots, nor that which is declared
    to be had by a learned (man), 210. Nor the food (given)
    by a thief, a musician, a carpenter, a usurer, one who
    has been initiated (for the performance of a Srauta sac-
    ri ce), a miser, one bound with fetters, 211. By one ac-
    cused of a mortal sin (Abhisasta), a hermaphrodite, an
    unchaste woman, or a hypocrite, nor (any sweet thing)
    that has turned sour, nor what has been kept a whole
    night, nor (the food) of a Sudra, nor the leavings (of
    another man), 212. Nor (the food given) by a physi-
    cian, a hunter, a cruel man, one who eats the fragments
    (of another's meal), nor the food of an Ugra, nor that
    prepared for a woman in childbed, nor that (given at
    a dinner) where (a guest rises) prematurely (and) sips
    water, nor that (given by a woman) whose ten days of
    impurity have not elapsed, 213. Nor (food) given with-
    out due respect, nor (that which contains) meat eaten
    for no sacred purpose, nor (that given) by a female who
    has no male (relatives), nor the food of an enemy, nor
    that (given) by the lord of a town, nor that (given) by
    outcasts, nor that on which anybody has sneezed; 214.
    Nor the food (given) by an informer, by one who habitu-
    ally tells falsehoods, or by one who sells (the rewards for)
    sacri ces, nor the food (given) by an actor, a tailor, or
    an ungrateful (man), 215. By a blacksmith, a Nishada, a
    stage-player, a goldsmith, a basket-maker, or a dealer in
    weapons, 216. By trainers of hunting dogs, publicans, a
    washerman, a dyer, a pitiless (man), and a man in whose
    house (lives) a paramour (of his wife), 217. Nor (the food
    given) by those who knowingly bear with paramours (of
    their wives), and by those who in all matters are ruled
    by women, nor food (given by men) whose ten days of
    impurity on account of a death have not passed, nor
    that which is unpalatable. 218. The food of a king im-
    pairs his vigour, the food of a Sudra his excellence in
    sacred learning, the food of a goldsmith his longevity,
    that of a leather-cutter his fame; 219. The food of an
    artisan destroys his o spring, that of a washerman his
    (bodily) strength; the food of a multitude and of harlots
    excludes him from (the higher) worlds. 220. The food
    of a physician (is as vile as) pus, that of an unchaste
    woman (equal to) semen, that of a usurer (as vile as)
    ordure, and that of a dealer in weapons (as bad as) dirt.
    221. The food of those other persons who have been
    successively enumerated as such whose food must not be
    eaten, the wise declare (to be as impure as) skin, bones,
    and hair. 222. If he has unwittingly eaten the food of
    one of those, (he must) fast for three days; if he has
    eaten it intentionally, or (has swallowed) semen, ordure,
    or urine, he must perform a Krikkhra penance. 223.
    A Brahmana who knows (the law) must not eat cooked
    food (given) by a Sudra who performs no Sraddhas; but,
    on failure of (other) means of subsistence, he may accept
    raw (grain), sucient for one night (and day). 224. The
    gods, having considered (the respective merits) of a nig-
    gardly Srotriya and of a liberal usurer, declared the food
    of both to be equal (in quality). 225. The Lord of cre-
    ated beings (Pragapati) came and spake to them, 'Do
    not make that equal, which is unequal. The food of that
    liberal (usurer) is puri ed by faith; (that of the) of the)
    other (man) is de led by a want of faith.' 226. Let him,
    without tiring, always o er sacri ces and perform works
    of charity with faith; for o erings and charitable works
    made with faith and with lawfully-earned money, (pro-
    cure) endless rewards. 227. Let him always practise,
    according to his ability, with a cheerful heart, the duty
    of liberality, both by sacri ces and by charitable works,
    if he nds a worthy recipient (for his gifts.) 228. If he
    is asked, let him always give something, be it ever so
    little, without grudging; for a worthy recipient will (per-
    haps) be found who saves him from all (guilt). 229. A
    giver of water obtains the satisfaction (of his hunger and
    thirst), a giver of food imperishable happiness, a giver
    of sesamum desirable o spring, a giver of a lamp a most
    excellent eyesight. 230. A giver of land obtains land,
    a giver of gold long life, a giver of a house most excel-
    lent mansions, a giver of silver (rupya) exquisite beauty
    (rupa), 231. A giver of a garment a place in the world of
    the moon, a giver of a horse (asva) a place in the world
    of the Asvins, a giver of a draught-ox great good for-
    tune, a giver of a cow the world of the sun; 232. A giver
    of a carriage or of a bed a wife, a giver of protection
    supreme dominion, a giver of grain eternal bliss, a giver
    of the Veda (brahman) union with Brahman; 233. The
    gift of the Veda surpasses all other gifts, water, food,
    cows, land, clothes, sesamum, gold, and clari ed butter.
    234. For whatever purpose (a man) bestows any gift, for
    that same purpose he receives (in his next birth) with
    due honour its (reward). 235. Both he who respectfully
    receives (a gift), and he who respectfully bestows it, go
    to heaven; in the contrary case (they both fall) into hell.
    236. Let him not be proud of his austerities; let him
    not utter a falsehood after he has o ered a sacri ce; let
    him not speak ill of Brahmanas, though he be tormented
    (by them); when he has bestowed (a gift), let him not
    boast of it. 237. By falsehood a sacri ce becomes vain,
    by self-complacency (the reward for) austerities is lost,
    longevity by speaking evil of Brahmanas, and (the re-
    ward of) a gift by boasting. 238. Giving no pain to any
    creature, let him slowly accumulate spiritual merit, for
    the sake (of acquiring) a companion to the next world,
    just as the white ant (gradually raises its) hill. 239.
    For in the next world neither father, nor mother, nor
    wife, nor sons, nor relations stay to be his companions;
    spiritual merit alone remains (with him). 240. Single
    is each being born; single it dies; single it enjoys (the
    reward of its) virtue; single (it su ers the punishment
    of its) sin. 241. Leaving the dead body on the ground
    like a log of wood, or a clod of earth, the relatives depart
    with averted faces; but spiritual merit follows the (soul).
    242. Let him therefore always slowly accumulate spiri-
    tual merit, in order (that it may be his) companion (after
    death); for with merit as his companion he will traverse
    a gloom dicult to traverse. 243. (That companion)
    speedily conducts the man who is devoted to duty and
    e aces his sins by austerities, to the next world, radiant
    and clothed with an ethereal body. 244. Let him, who
    desires to raise his race, ever form connexions with the
    most excellent (men), and shun all low ones. 245. A
    Brahmana who always connects himself with the most
    excellent (ones), and shuns all inferior ones, (himself)
    becomes most distinguished; by an opposite conduct he
    becomes a Sudra. 246. He who is persevering, gentle,
    (and) patient, shuns the company of men of cruel con-
    duct, and does no injury (to living creatures), gains, if
    he constantly lives in that manner, by controlling his
    organs and by liberality, heavenly bliss. 247. He may
    accept from any (man), fuel, water, roots, fruit, food of-
    fered without asking, and honey, likewise a gift (which
    consists in) a promise of protection. 248. The Lord of
    created beings (Pragapati) has declared that alms freely
    o ered and brought (by the giver himself) may be ac-
    cepted even from a sinful man, provided (the gift) had
    not been (asked for or) promised beforehand. 249. Dur-
    ing fteen years the manes do not eat (the food) of that
    man who disdains a (freely-o ered gift), nor does the
    re carry his o erings (to the gods). 250. A couch, a
    house, Kusa grass, perfumes, water,
    owers, jewels, sour
    milk, grain, sh, sweet milk, meat, and vegetables let
    him not reject, (if they are voluntarily o ered.) 251. He
    who desires to relieve his Gurus and those whom he is
    bound to maintain, or wishes to honour the gods and
    guests, may accept (gifts) from anybody; but he must
    not satisfy his (own hunger) with such (presents). 252.
    But if his Gurus are dead, or if he lives separate from
    them in (another) house, let him, when he seeks a sub-
    sistence, accept (presents) from good men alone. 253.
    His labourer in tillage, a friend of his family, his cow-
    herd, his slave, and his barber are, among Sudras, those
    whose food he may eat, likewise (a poor man) who o ers
    himself (to be his slave). 254. As his character is, as the
    work is which he desires to perform, and as the manner
    is in which he means to serve, even so (a voluntary slave)
    must o er himself. 255. He who describes himself to vir-
    tuous (men), in a manner contrary to truth, is the most
    sinful (wretch) in this world; he is a thief who makes
    away with his own self. 256. All things (have their na-
    ture) determined by speech; speech is their root, and
    from speech they proceed; but he who is dishonest with
    respect to speech, is dishonest in everything. 257. When
    he has paid, according to the law, his debts to the great
    sages, to the manes, and to the gods, let him make over
    everything to his son and dwell (in his house), not caring
    for any worldly concerns. 258. Alone let him constantly
    meditate in solitude on that which is salutary for his
    soul; for he who meditates in solitude attains supreme
    bliss. 259. Thus have been declared the means by which
    a Brahmana householder must always subsist, and the
    summary of the ordinances for a Snataka, which cause
    an increase of holiness and are praiseworthy. 260. A
    Brahmana who, being learned in the lore of the Vedas,
    conducts himself in this manner and daily destroys his
    sins, will be exalted in Brahman's world.
    1. The sages, having heard the duties of a Snataka
    thus declared, spoke to great-souled Bhrigu, who sprang
    from re: 2. 'How can Death have power over Brah-
    manas who know the sacred science, the Veda, (and)
    who ful l their duties as they have been explained (by
    thee), O Lord? ' 3. Righteous Bhrigu, the son of
    Manu, (thus) answered the great sages: 'Hear, (in pun-
    ishment) of what faults Death seeks to shorten the lives
    of Brahmanas!' 4. 'Through neglect of the Veda-study,
    through deviation from the rule of conduct, through re-
    missness (in the ful lment of duties), and through faults
    (committed by eating forbidden) food, Death becomes
    eager to shorten the lives of Brahmanas.' 5. Garlic,
    leeks and onions, mushrooms and (all plants), spring-
    ing from impure (substances), are un t to be eaten by
    twice-born men. 6. One should carefully avoid red ex-
    udations from trees and (juices)
    owing from incisions,
    the Selu (fruit), and the thickened milk of a cow (which
    she gives after calving). 7. Rice boiled with sesamum,
    wheat mixed with butter, milk and sugar, milk-rice and

    our-cakes which are not prepared for a sacri ce, meat
    which has not been sprinkled with water while sacred
    texts were recited, food o ered to the gods and sacri -
    cial viands, 8. The milk of a cow (or other female ani-
    mal) within ten days after her calving, that of camels,
    of one-hoofed animals, of sheep, of a cow in heat, or of
    one that has no calf with her, 9. (The milk) of all wild
    animals excepting bu alo-cows, that of women, and all
    (substances turned) sour must be avoided. 10. Among
    (things turned) sour, sour milk, and all (food) prepared
    of it may be eaten, likewise what is extracted from pure

    owers, roots, and fruit. 11. Let him avoid all carniv-
    orous birds and those living in villages, and one-hoofed
    animals which are not specially permitted (to be eaten),
    and the Tittibha (Parra Jacana), 12. The sparrow, the
    Plava, the Hamsa, the Brahmani duck, the village-****,
    the Sarasa crane, the Raggudala, the woodpecker, the
    parrot, and the starling, 13. Those which feed striking
    with their beaks, web-footed birds, the Koyashti, those
    which scratch with their toes, those which dive and live
    on sh, meat from a slaughter-house and dried meat, 14.
    The Baka and the Balaka crane, the raven, the Khangar-
    itaka, (animals) that eat sh, village-pigs, and all kinds
    of shes. 15. He who eats the
    esh of any (animal)
    is called the eater of the
    esh of that (particular crea-
    ture), he who eats sh is an eater of every (kind of)

    esh; let him therefore avoid sh. 16. (But the sh
    called) Pathina and (that called) Rohita may be eaten,
    if used for o erings to the gods or to the manes; (one
    may eat) likewise Ragivas, Simhatundas, and Sasalkas
    on all (occasions). 17. Let him not eat solitary or un-
    known beasts and birds, though they may fall under (the
    categories of) eatable (creatures), nor any ve-toed (an-
    imals). 18. The porcupine, the hedgehog, the iguana,
    the rhinoceros, the tortoise, and the hare they declare to
    be eatable; likewise those (domestic animals) that have
    teeth in one jaw only, excepting camels. 19. A twice-
    born man who knowingly eats mushrooms, a village-pig,
    garlic, a village-****, onions, or leeks, will become an
    outcast. 20. He who unwittingly partakes of (any of)
    these six, shall perform a Samtapana (Krikkhra) or the
    lunar penance (Kandrayana) of ascetics; in case (he who
    has eaten) any other (kind of forbidden food) he shall
    fast for one day (and a night ). 21. Once a year a
    Brahmana must perform a Krikkhra penance, in order
    to atone for unintentionally eating (forbidden food) but
    for intentionally (eating forbidden food he must perform
    the penances prescribed) specially. 22. Beasts and birds
    recommended (for consumption) may be slain by Brah-
    manas for sacri ces, and in order to feed those whom
    they are bound to maintain; for Agastya did this of
    old. 23. For in ancient (times) the sacri cial cakes were
    (made of the
    esh) of eatable beasts and birds at the
    sacri ces o ered by Brahmanas and Kshatriyas. 24. All
    lawful hard or soft food may be eaten, though stale, (af-
    ter having been) mixed with fatty (substances), and so
    may the remains of sacri cial viands. 25. But all prepa-
    rations of barley and wheat, as well as preparations of
    milk, may be eaten by twice-born men without being
    mixed with fatty (substances), though they may have
    stood for a long time.
    26. Thus has the food, allowed and forbidden to
    twice-born men, been fully described; I will now pro-
    pound the rules for eating and avoiding meat. 27. One
    may eat meat when it has been sprinkled with water,
    while Mantras were recited, when Brahmanas desire (one's
    doing it), when one is engaged (in the performance of a
    rite) according to the law, and when one's life is in dan-
    ger. 28. The Lord of creatures (Pragapati) created this
    whole (world to be) the sustenance of the vital spirit;
    both the immovable and the movable (creation is) the
    food of the vital spirit. 29. What is destitute of motion
    is the food of those endowed with locomotion; (animals)
    without fangs (are the food) of those with fangs, those
    without hands of those who possess hands, and the timid
    of the bold. 30. The eater who daily even devours those
    destined to be his food, commits no sin; for the creator
    himself created both the eaters and those who are to be
    eaten (for those special purposes). 31. 'The consump-
    tion of meat (is be tting) for sacri ces,' that is declared
    to be a rule made by the gods; but to persist (in using it)
    on other (occasions) is said to be a proceeding worthy of
    Rakshasas. 32. He who eats meat, when he honours the
    gods and manes, commits no sin, whether he has bought
    it, or himself has killed (the animal), or has received it
    as a present from others. 33. A twice-born man who
    knows the law, must not eat meat except in conformity
    with the law; for if he has eaten it unlawfully, he will,
    unable to save himself, be eaten after death by his (vic-
    tims). 34. After death the guilt of one who slays deer
    for gain is not as (great) as that of him who eats meat
    for no (sacred) purpose. 35. But a man who, being
    duly engaged (to ociate or to dine at a sacred rite), re-
    fuses to eat meat, becomes after death an animal during
    twenty-one existences. 36. A Brahmana must never eat
    esh of animals unhallowed by Mantras; but, obedi-
    ent to the primeval law, he may eat it, consecrated with
    Vedic texts. 37. If he has a strong desire (for meat) he
    may make an animal of clari ed butter or one of
    (and eat that); but let him never seek to destroy an an-
    imal without a (lawful) reason. 38. As many hairs as
    the slain beast has, so often indeed will he who killed
    it without a (lawful) reason su er a violent death in fu-
    ture births. 39. Svayambhu (the Self-existent) himself
    created animals for the sake of sacri ces; sacri ces (have
    been instituted) for the good of this whole (world); hence
    the slaughtering (of beasts) for sacri ces is not slaugh-
    tering (in the ordinary sense of the word). 40. Herbs,
    trees, cattle, birds, and (other) animals that have been
    destroyed for sacri ces, receive (being reborn) higher ex-
    istences. 41. On o ering the honey-mixture (to a guest),
    at a sacri ce and at the rites in honour of the manes,
    but on these occasions only, may an animal be slain;
    that (rule) Manu proclaimed. 42. A twice-born man
    who, knowing the true meaning of the Veda, slays an
    animal for these purposes, causes both himself and the
    animal to enter a most blessed state. 43. A twice-born
    man of virtuous disposition, whether he dwells in (his
    own) house, with a teacher, or in the forest, must never,
    even in times of distress, cause an injury (to any crea-
    ture) which is not sanctioned by the Veda. 44. Know
    that the injury to moving creatures and to those desti-
    tute of motion, which the Veda has prescribed for certain
    occasions, is no injury at all; for the sacred law shone
    forth from the Veda. 45. He who injures innoxious be-
    ings from a wish to (give) himself pleasure, never nds
    happiness, neither living nor dead. 46. He who does not
    seek to cause the su erings of bonds and death to living
    creatures, (but) desires the good of all (beings), obtains
    endless bliss. 47. He who does not injure any (creature),
    attains without an e ort what he thinks of, what he un-
    dertakes, and what he xes his mind on. 48. Meat can
    never be obtained without injury to living creatures, and
    injury to sentient beings is detrimental to (the attain-
    ment of) heavenly bliss; let him therefore shun (the use
    of) meat. 49. Having well considered the (disgusting)
    origin of
    esh and the (cruelty of) fettering and slaying
    corporeal beings, let him entirely abstain from eating

    esh. 50. He who, disregarding the rule (given above),
    does not eat meat like a Pisaka, becomes dear to men,
    and will not be tormented by diseases. 51. He who per-
    mits (the slaughter of an animal), he who cuts it up, he
    who kills it, he who buys or sells (meat), he who cooks
    it, he who serves it up, and he who eats it, (must all
    be considered as) the slayers (of the animal). 52. There
    is no greater sinner than that (man) who, though not
    worshipping the gods or the manes, seeks to increase
    (the bulk of) his own
    esh by the
    esh of other (beings).
    53. He who during a hundred years annually o ers a
    horse-sacri ce, and he who entirely abstains from meat,
    obtain the same reward for their meritorious (conduct).
    54. By subsisting on pure fruit and roots, and by eating
    food t for ascetics (in the forest), one does not gain (so
    great) a reward as by entirely avoiding (the use of)
    55. 'Me he (mam sah)' will devour in the next (world),
    esh I eat in this (life); the wise declare this (to
    be) the real meaning of the word '
    esh' (mamsah). 56.
    There is no sin in eating meat, in (drinking) spirituous
    liquor, and in carnal intercourse, for that is the natu-
    ral way of created beings, but abstention brings great
    57. I will now in due order explain the puri cation
    for the dead and the puri cation of things as they are
    prescribed for the four castes (varna). 58. When (a
    child) dies that has teethed, or that before teething has
    received (the sacrament of) the tonsure (Kudakarana)
    or (of the initiation), all relatives (become) impure, and
    on the birth (of a child) the same (rule) is prescribed.
    59. It is ordained (that) among Sapindas the impurity
    on account of a death (shall last) ten days, (or) until the
    bones have been collected, (or) three days or one day
    only. 60. But the Sapinda-relationship ceases with the
    seventh person (in the ascending and descending lines),
    the Samanodaka-relationship when the (common) ori-
    gin and the (existence of a common family)- name are
    no (longer) known. 61. As this impurity on account of
    a death is prescribed for (all) Sapindas, even so it shall
    be (held) on a birth by those who desire to be abso-
    lutely pure. 62. (Or while) the impurity on account of
    a death is common to all (Sapindas), that caused by a
    birth (falls) on the parents alone; (or) it shall fall on
    the mother alone, and the father shall become pure by
    bathing; 63. But a man, having spent his strength, is
    puri ed merely by bathing; after begetting a child (on
    a remarried female), he shall retain the impurity during
    three days. 64. Those who have touched a corpse are
    puri ed after one day and night (added to) three peri-
    ods of three days; those who give libations of water, after
    three days. 65. A pupil who performs the Pitrimedha for
    his deceased teacher, becomes also pure after ten days,
    just like those who carry the corpse out (to the burial-
    ground). 66. (A woman) is puri ed on a miscarriage
    in as many (days and) nights as months (elapsed after
    conception), and a menstruating female becomes pure
    by bathing after the menstrual secretion has ceased (to

    ow). 67. (On the death) of children whose tonsure
    (Kudakarman) has not been performed, the (Sapindas)
    are declared to become pure in one (day and) night; (on
    the death) of those who have received the tonsure (but
    not the initiation, the law) ordains (that) the puri ca-
    tion (takes place) after three days. 68. A child that
    has died before the completion of its second year, the
    relatives shall carry out (of the village), decked (with

    owers, and bury it) in pure ground, without collecting
    the bones (afterwards). 69. Such (a child) shall not be
    burnt with re, and no libations of water shall be o ered
    to it; leaving it like a (log of) wood in the forest, (the
    relatives) shall remain impure during three days only.
    70. The relatives shall not o er libations to (a child)
    that has not reached the third year; but if it had teeth,
    or the ceremony of naming it (Namakarman) had been
    performed, (the o ering of water is) optional. 71. If a
    fellow-student has died, the Smriti prescribes an impu-
    rity of one day; on a birth the puri cation of the Saman-
    odakas is declared (to take place) after three (days and)
    nights. 72. (On the death) of females (betrothed but)
    not married (the bridegroom and his) relatives are puri-
    ed after three days, and the paternal relatives become
    pure according to the same rule. 73. Let (mourners) eat
    food without factitious salt, bathe during three days,
    abstain from meat, and sleep separate on the ground.
    74. The above rule regarding impurity on account of
    a death has been prescribed (for cases where the kins-
    men live) near (the deceased); (Sapinda) kinsmen and
    (Samanodaka) relatives must know the following rule (to
    refer to cases where deceased lived) at a distance (from
    them). 75. He who may hear that (a relative) residing
    in a distant country has died, before ten (days after his
    death have elapsed), shall be impure for the remainder
    of the period of ten (days and) nights only. 76. If the ten
    days have passed, he shall be impure during three (days
    and) nights; but if a year has elapsed (since the occur-
    rence of the death), he becomes pure merely by bathing.
    77. A man who hears of a (Sapinda) relative's death,
    or of the birth of a son after the ten days (of impurity
    have passed), becomes pure by bathing, dressed in his
    garments. 78. If an infant (that has not teethed), or a
    (grownup relative who is) not a Sapinda, die in a distant
    country, one becomes at once pure after bathing in one's
    clothes. 79. If within the ten days (of impurity) another
    birth or death happens, a Brahmana shall remain impure
    only until the ( rst) period of ten days has expired. 80.
    They declare that, when the teacher (akarya) has died,
    the impurity (lasts) three days; if the (teacher's) son or
    wife (is dead, it lasts) a day and a night; that is a settled
    (rule). 81. For a Srotriya who resides with (him out of
    a ection), a man shall be impure for three days; for a
    maternal uncle, a pupil, an ociating priest, or a ma-
    ternal relative, for one night together with the preceding
    and following days. 82. If the king in whose realm he
    resides is dead, (he shall be impure) as long as the light
    (of the sun or stars shines), but for (an intimate friend)
    who is not a Srotriya (the impurity lasts) for a whole
    day, likewise for a Guru who knows the Veda and the
    Angas. 83. A Brahmana shall be pure after ten days,
    a Kshatriya after twelve, a Vaisya after fteen, and a
    Sudra is puri ed after a month. 84. Let him not (unnec-
    essarily) lengthen the period of impurity, nor interrupt
    the rites to be performed with the sacred res; for he
    who performs that (Agnihotra) rite will not be impure,
    though (he be) a (Sapinda) relative. 85. When he has
    touched a Kandala, a menstruating woman, an outcast,
    a woman in childbed, a corpse, or one who has touched
    a (corpse), he becomes pure by bathing. 86. He who has
    puri ed himself by sipping water shall, on seeing any im-
    pure (thing or person), always mutter the sacred texts,
    addressed to Surya, and the Pavamani (verses). 87. A
    Brahmana who has touched a human bone to which fat
    adheres, becomes pure by bathing; if it be free from fat,
    by sipping water and by touching (afterwards) a cow or
    looking at the sun. 88. He who has undertaken the per-
    formance of a vow shall not pour out libations (to the
    dead) until the vow has been completed; but when he
    has o ered water after its completion, he becomes pure
    in three days only. 89. Libations of water shall not be
    o ered to those who (neglect the prescribed rites and
    may be said to) have been born in vain, to those born in
    consequence of an illegal mixture of the castes, to those
    who are ascetics (of heretical sects), and to those who
    have committed suicide, 90. To women who have joined
    a heretical sect, who through lust live (with many men),
    who have caused an abortion, have killed their husbands,
    or drink spirituous liquor. 91. A student does not break
    his vow by carrying out (to the place of cremation) his
    own dead teacher (akarya), sub-teacher (upadhyaya), fa-
    ther, mother, or Guru. 92. Let him carry out a dead
    Sudra by the southern gate of the town, but (the corpses
    of) twice-born men, as is proper, by the western, north-
    ern, or eastern (gates). 93. The taint of impurity does
    not fall on kings, and those engaged in the performance
    of a vow, or of a Sattra; for the ( rst are) seated on
    the throne of Indra, and the (last two are) ever pure
    like Brahman. 94. For a king, on the throne of mag-
    nanimity, immediate puri cation is prescribed, and the
    reason for that is that he is seated (there) for the pro-
    tection of (his) subjects. 95. (The same rule applies to
    the kinsmen) of those who have fallen in a riot or a bat-
    tle, (of those who have been killed) by lightning or by
    the king, and (of those who perished ghting) for cows
    and Brahmanas, and to those whom the king wishes (to
    be pure). 96. A king is an incarnation of the eight
    guardian deities of the world, the Moon, the Fire, the
    Sun, the Wind, Indra, the Lords of wealth and water
    (Kubera and Varuna), and Yama. 97. Because the king
    is pervaded by those lords of the world, no impurity is
    ordained for him; for purity and impurity of mortals is
    caused and removed by (those) lords of the world. 98.
    By him who is slain in battle with brandished weapons
    according to the law of the Kshatriyas, a (Srauta) sacri-
    ce is instantly completed, and so is the period of impu-
    rity (caused by his death); that is a settled rule. 99. (At
    the end of the period of impurity) a Brahmana who has
    performed the necessary rites, becomes pure by touching
    water, a Kshatriya by touching the animal on which he
    rides, and his weapons, a Vaisya by touching his goad
    or the nose-string (of his oxen), a Sudra by touching his
    sta .
    100. Thus the puri cation (required) on (the death
    of) Sapindas has been explained to you, O best of twice-
    born men; hear now the manner in which men are puri-
    ed on the death of any (relative who is) not a Sapinda.
    101. A Brahmana, having carried out a dead Brahmana
    who is not a Sapinda, as (if he were) a (near) relative, or
    a near relative of his mother, becomes pure after three
    days; 102. But if he eats the food of the (Sapindas of the
    deceased), he is puri ed in ten days, (but) in one day, if
    he does not eat their food nor dwells in their house. 103.
    Having voluntarily followed a corpse, whether (that of)
    a paternal kinsman or (of) a stranger, he becomes pure
    by bathing, dressed in his clothes, by touching re and
    eating clari ed butter. 104. Let him not allow a dead
    Brahmana to be carried out by a Sudra, while men of
    the same caste are at hand; for that burnt-o ering which
    is de led by a Sudra's touch is detrimental to (the de-
    ceased's passage to) heaven. 105. The knowledge (of
    Brahman) austerities, re, (holy) food, earth, (restraint
    of) the internal organ, water, smearing (with cowdung),
    the wind, sacred rites, the sun, and time are the puri ers
    of corporeal (beings). 106. Among all modes of puri -
    cation, purity in (the acquisition of) wealth is declared
    to be the best; for he is pure who gains wealth with
    clean hands, not he who puri es himself with earth and
    water. 107. The learned are puri ed by a forgiving dis-
    position, those who have committed forbidden actions
    by liberality, secret sinners by muttering (sacred texts),
    and those who best know the Veda by austerities. 108.
    By earth and water is puri ed what ought to be made
    pure, a river by its current, a woman whose thoughts
    have been impure by the menstrual secretion, a Brah-
    mana by abandoning the world (samnyasa). 109. The
    body is cleansed by water, the internal organ is puri ed
    by truthfulness, the individual soul by sacred learning
    and austerities, the intellect by (true) knowledge.
    110. Thus the precise rules for the puri cation of
    the body have been declared to you; hear now the de-
    cision (of the law) regarding the puri cation of the var-
    ious (inanimate) things. 111. The wise ordain that all
    (objects) made of metal, gems, and anything made of
    stone are to be cleansed with ashes, earth, and water.
    112. A golden vessel which shows no stains, becomes
    pure with water alone, likewise what is produced in wa-
    ter (as shells and coral), what is made of stone, and
    a silver (vessel) not enchased. 113. From the union
    of water and re arose the glittering gold and silver;
    those two, therefore, are best puri ed by (the elements)
    from which they sprang. 114. Copper, iron, brass,
    pewter, tin, and lead must be cleansed, as may be suit-
    able (for each particular case), by alkaline (substances),
    acids or water. 115. The puri cation prescribed for all
    (sorts of) liquids is by passing two blades of Kusa grass
    through them, for solid things by sprinkling (them with
    water), for (objects) made of wood by planing them.
    116. At sacri ces the puri cation of (the Soma cups
    called) Kamasas and Grahas, and of (other) sacri cial
    vessels (takes place) by rubbing (them) with the hand,
    and (afterwards) rinsing (them with water). 117. The
    Karu and (the spoons called) Sruk and Sruva must be
    cleaned with hot water, likewise (the wooden sword,
    called) Sphya, the winnowing-basket (Surpa), the cart
    (for bringing the grain), the pestle and the mortar. 118.
    The manner of purifying large quantities of grain and of
    cloth is to sprinkle them with water; but the puri ca-
    tion of small quantities is prescribed (to take place) by
    washing them. 119. Skins and (objects) made of split
    cane must be cleaned like clothes; vegetables, roots, and
    fruit like grain; 120. Silk and woollen stu s with alkaline
    earth; blankets with pounded Arishta (fruit); Amsupat-
    tas with Bel fruit; linen cloth with (a paste of) yellow
    mustard. 121. A man who knows (the law) must purify
    conch-shells, horn, bone and ivory, like linen cloth, or
    with a mixture of cow's urine and water. 122. Grass,
    wood, and straw become pure by being sprinkled (with
    water), a house by sweeping and smearing (it with cow-
    dung or whitewash), an earthen (vessel) by a second
    burning. 123. An earthen vessel which has been de led
    by spirituous liquor, urine, ordure, saliva, pus or blood
    cannot be puri ed by another burning. 124. Land is pu-
    ri ed by (the following) ve (modes, viz.) by sweeping,
    by smearing (it with cowdung), by sprinkling (it with
    cows' urine or milk), by scraping, and by cows staying
    (on it during a day and night). 125. (Food) which has
    been pecked at by birds, smelt at by cows, touched (with
    the foot), sneezed on, or de led by hair or insects, be-
    comes pure by scattering earth (over it). 126. As long
    as the (foul) smell does not leave an (object) de led by
    impure substances, and the stain caused by them (does
    not disappear), so long must earth and water be ap-
    plied in cleansing (inanimate) things. 127. The gods
    declared three things (to be) pure to Brahmanas, that
    (on which) no (taint is) visible, what has been washed
    with water, and what has been commended (as pure)
    by the word (of a Brahmana). 128. Water, sucient (in
    quantity) in order to slake the thirst of a cow, possessing
    the (proper) smell, colour, and taste, and unmixed with
    impure substances, is pure, if it is collected on (pure)
    ground. 129. The hand of an artisan is always pure,
    so is (every vendible commodity) exposed for sale in the
    market, and food obtained by begging which a student
    holds (in his hand) is always t for use; that is a set-
    tled rule. 130. The mouth of a woman is always pure,
    likewise a bird when he causes a fruit to fall; a calf is
    pure on the
    owing of the milk, and a dog when he
    catches a deer. 131. Manu has declared that the
    (of an animal) killed by dogs is pure, likewise (that) of a
    (beast) slain by carnivorous (animals) or by men of low
    caste (Dasyu), such as Kandalas. 132. All those cav-
    ities (of the body) which lie above the navel are pure,
    (but) those which are below the navel are impure, as
    well as excretions that fall from the body. 133. Flies,
    drops of water, a shadow, a cow, a horse, the rays of
    the sun, dust, earth, the wind, and re one must know
    to be pure to the touch. 134. In order to cleanse (the
    organs) by which urine and faeces are ejected, earth and
    water must be used, as they may be required, likewise
    in removing the (remaining ones among) twelve impu-
    rities of the body. 135. Oily exudations, semen, blood,
    (the fatty substance of the) brain, urine, faeces, the mu-
    cus of the nose, ear-wax, phlegm, tears, the rheum of
    the eyes, and sweat are the twelve impurities of human
    (bodies). 136. He who desires to be pure, must clean
    the organ by one (application of) earth, the anus by
    (applying earth) three (times), the (left) hand alone by
    (applying it) ten (times), and both (hands) by (applying
    it) seven (times). 137. Such is the puri cation ordained
    for householders; (it shall be) double for students, treble
    for hermits, but quadruple for ascetics. 138. When he
    has voided urine or faeces, let him, after sipping water,
    sprinkle the cavities, likewise when he is going to recite
    the Veda, and always before he takes food. 139. Let him
    who desires bodily purity rst sip water three times, and
    then twice wipe his mouth; but a woman and a Sudra
    (shall perform each act) once (only). 140. Sudras who
    live according to the law, shall each month shave (their
    heads); their mode of puri cation (shall be) the same
    as that of Vaisyas, and their food the fragments of an
    Aryan's meal. 141. Drops (of water) from the mouth
    which do not fall on a limb, do not make (a man) im-
    pure, nor the hair of the moustache entering the mouth,
    nor what adheres to the teeth. 142. Drops which trickle
    on the feet of him who o ers water for sipping to others,
    must be considered as equal to (water collected on the
    ground; they render him not impure. 143. He who, while
    carrying anything in any manner, is touched by an im-
    pure (person or thing), shall become pure, if he performs
    an ablution, without putting down that object. 144. He
    who has vomited or purged shall bathe, and afterwards
    eat clari ed butter; but if (the attack comes on) after he
    has eaten, let him only sip water; bathing is prescribed
    for him who has had intercourse with a woman. 145.
    Though he may be (already) pure, let him sip water af-
    ter sleeping, sneezing, eating, spitting, telling untruths,
    and drinking water, likewise when he is going to study
    the Veda.
    146. Thus the rules of personal puri cation for men
    of all castes, and those for cleaning (inanimate) things,
    have been fully declared to you: hear now the duties of
    women. 147. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an
    aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in
    her own house. 148. In childhood a female must be sub-
    ject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord
    is dead to her sons; a womanmust never be independent.
    149. She must not seek to separate herself from her fa-
    ther, husband, or sons; by leaving them she would make
    both (her own and her husband's) families contemptible.
    150. She must always be cheerful, clever in (the man-
    agement of her) household a airs, careful in cleaning her
    utensils, and economical in expenditure. 151. Him to
    whom her father may give her, or her brother with the
    father's permission, she shall obey as long as he lives,
    and when he is dead, she must not insult (his memory).
    152. For the sake of procuring good fortune to (brides),
    the recitation of benedictory texts (svastyayana), and
    the sacri ce to the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) are
    used at weddings; (but) the betrothal (by the father
    or guardian) is the cause of (the husband's) dominion
    (over his wife). 153. The husband who wedded her
    with sacred texts, always gives happiness to his wife,
    both in season and out of season, in this world and in
    the next. 154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking
    pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good qualities, (yet) a
    husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a
    faithful wife. 155. No sacri ce, no vow, no fast must be
    performed by women apart (from their husbands); if a
    wife obeys her husband, she will for that (reason alone)
    be exalted in heaven. 156. A faithful wife, who desires
    to dwell (after death) with her husband, must never do
    anything that might displease him who took her hand,
    whether he be alive or dead. 157. At her pleasure let
    her emaciate her body by (living on) pure
    owers, roots,
    and fruit; but she must never even mention the name
    of another man after her husband has died. 158. Until
    death let her be patient (of hardships), self-controlled,
    and chaste, and strive (to ful l) that most excellent duty
    which (is prescribed) for wives who have one husband
    only. 159. Many thousands of Brahmanas who were
    chaste from their youth, have gone to heaven without
    continuing their race. 160. A virtuous wife who after the
    death of her husband constantly remains chaste, reaches
    heaven, though she have no son, just like those chaste
    men. 161. But a woman who from a desire to have
    o spring violates her duty towards her (deceased) hus-
    band, brings on herself disgrace in this world, and loses
    her place with her husband (in heaven). 162. O spring
    begotten by another man is here not (considered lawful),
    nor (does o spring begotten) on another man's wife (be-
    long to the begetter), nor is a second husband anywhere
    prescribed for virtuous women. 163. She who cohabits
    with a man of higher caste, forsaking her own husband
    who belongs to a lower one, will become contemptible
    in this world, and is called a remarried woman (para-
    purva). 164. By violating her duty towards her hus-
    band, a wife is disgraced in this world, (after death) she
    enters the womb of a jackal, and is tormented by diseases
    (the punishment of) her sin. 165. She who, controlling
    her thoughts, words, and deeds, never slights her lord,
    resides (after death) with her husband (in heaven), and
    is called a virtuous (wife). 166. In reward of such con-
    duct, a female who controls her thoughts, speech, and
    actions, gains in this (life) highest renown, and in the
    next (world) a place near her husband. 167. A twice-
    born man, versed in the sacred law, shall burn a wife
    of equal caste who conducts herself thus and dies before
    him, with (the sacred res used for) the Agnihotra, and
    with the sacri cial implements. 168. Having thus, at
    the funeral, given the sacred res to his wife who dies
    before him, he may marry again, and again kindle (the
    res). 169. (Living) according to the (preceding) rules,
    he must never neglect the ve (great) sacri ces, and,
    having taken a wife, he must dwell in (his own) house
    during the second period of his life.
    1. A twice-born Snataka, who has thus lived accord-
    ing to the law in the order of householders, may, taking
    a rm resolution and keeping his organs in subjection,
    dwell in the forest, duly (observing the rules given be-
    low). 2. When a householder sees his (skin) wrinkled,
    and (his hair) white, and. the sons of his sons, then he
    may resort to the forest. 3. Abandoning all food raised
    by cultivation, and all his belongings, he may depart
    into the forest, either committing his wife to his sons, or
    accompanied by her. 4. Taking with him the sacred re
    and the implements required for domestic (sacri ces), he
    may go forth from the village into the forest and reside
    there, duly controlling his senses. 5. Let him o er those
    ve great sacri ces according to the rule, with various
    kinds of pure food t for ascetics, or with herbs, roots,
    and fruit. 6. Let him wear a skin or a tattered garment;
    let him bathe in the evening or in the morning; and let
    him always wear (his hair in) braids, the hair on his
    body, his beard, and his nails (being unclipped). 7. Let
    him perform the Bali-o ering with such food as he eats,
    and give alms according to his ability; let him honour
    those who come to his hermitage with alms consisting of
    water, roots, and fruit. 8. Let him be always industri-
    ous in privately reciting the Veda; let him be patient of
    hardships, friendly (towards all), of collected mind, ever
    liberal and never a receiver of gifts, and compassionate
    towards all living creatures. 9. Let him o er, accord-
    ing to the law, the Agnihotra with three sacred res,
    never omitting the new-moon and full-moon sacri ces
    at the proper time. 10. Let him also o er the Naksha-
    treshti, the Agrayana, and the Katurmasya (sacri ces),
    as well as the Turayana and likewise the Dakshayana,
    in due order. 11. With pure grains, t for ascetics,
    which grow in spring and in autumn, and which he him-
    self has collected, let him severally prepare the sacri -
    cial cakes (purodasa) and the boiled messes (karu), as
    the law directs. 12. Having o ered those most pure
    sacri cial viands, consisting of the produce of the for-
    est, he may use the remainder for himself, (mixed with)
    salt prepared by himself. 13. Let him eat vegetables
    that grow on dry land or in water,
    owers, roots, and
    fruits, the productions of pure trees, and oils extracted
    from forest-fruits. 14. Let him avoid honey,
    esh, and
    mushrooms growing on the ground (or elsewhere, the
    vegetables called) Bhustrina, and Sigruka, and the Slesh-
    mantaka fruit. 15. Let him throw away in the month
    of Asvina the food of ascetics, which he formerly col-
    lected, likewise his worn-out clothes and his vegetables,
    roots, and fruit. 16. Let him not eat anything (grown
    on) ploughed (land), though it may have been thrown
    away by somebody, nor roots and fruit grown in a vil-
    lage, though (he may be) tormented (by hunger). 17.
    He may eat either what has been cooked with re, or
    what has been ripened by time; he either may use a
    stone for grinding, or his teeth may be his mortar. 18.
    He may either at once (after his daily meal) cleanse (his
    vessel for collecting food), or lay up a store sucient
    for a month, or gather what suces for six months or
    for a year. 19. Having collected food according to his
    ability, he may either eat at night (only), or in the day-
    time (only), or at every fourth meal-time, or at every
    eighth. 20. Or he may live according to the rule of
    the lunar penance (Kandrayana, daily diminishing the
    quantity of his food) in the bright (half of the month)
    and (increasing it) in the dark (half); or he may eat on
    the last days of each fortnight, once (a day only), boiled
    barley-gruel. 21. Or he may constantly subsist on
    ers, roots, and fruit alone, which have been ripened by
    time and have fallen spontaneously, following the rule
    of the (Institutes) of Vikhanas. 22. Let him either roll
    about on the ground, or stand during the day on tiptoe,
    (or) let him alternately stand and sit down; going at the
    Savanas (at sunrise, at midday, and at sunset) to water
    in the forest (in order to bathe). 23. In summer let him
    expose himself to the heat of ve res, during the rainy
    season live under the open sky, and in winter be dressed
    in wet clothes, (thus) gradually increasing (the rigour
    of) his austerities. 24. When he bathes at the three Sa-
    vanas (sunrise, midday, and sunset), let him o er liba-
    tions of water to the manes and the gods, and practising
    harsher and harsher austerities, let him dry up his bod-
    ily frame. 25. Having reposited the three sacred res
    in himself, according to the prescribed rule, let him live
    without a re, without a house, wholly silent, subsisting
    on roots and fruit, 26. Making no e ort (to procure)
    things that give pleasure, chaste, sleeping on the bare
    ground, not caring for any shelter, dwelling at the roots
    of trees. 27. From Brahmanas (who live as) ascetics, let
    him receive alms, (barely sucient) to support life, or
    from other householders of the twice-born (castes) who
    reside in the forest. 28. Or (the hermit) who dwells in
    the forest may bring (food) from a village, receiving it
    either in a hollow dish (of leaves), in (his naked) hand, or
    in a broken earthen dish, and may eat eight mouthfuls.
    29. These and other observances must a Brahmana who
    dwells in the forest diligently practise, and in order to at-
    tain complete (union with) the (supreme) Soul, (he must
    study) the various sacred texts contained in the Upan-
    ishads, 30. (As well as those rites and texts) which have
    been practised and studied by the sages (Rishis), and
    by Brahmana householders, in order to increase their
    knowledge (of Brahman), and their austerity, and in or-
    der to sanctify their bodies; 31. Or let him walk, fully
    determined and going straight on, in a north-easterly di-
    rection, subsisting on water and air, until his body sinks
    to rest. 32. A Brahmana, having got rid of his body
    by one of those modes practised by the great sages, is
    exalted in the world of Brahman, free from sorrow and
    fear. 33. But having thus passed the third part of (a
    man's natural term of) life in the forest, he may live
    as an ascetic during the fourth part of his existence, af-
    ter abandoning all attachment to worldly objects. 34.
    He who after passing from order to order, after o ering
    sacri ces and subduing his senses, becomes, tired with
    (giving) alms and o erings of food, an ascetic, gains bliss
    after death. 35. When he has paid the three debts, let
    him apply his mind to (the attainment of) nal liber-
    ation; he who seeks it without having paid (his debts)
    sinks downwards. 36. Having studied the Vedas in ac-
    cordance with the rule, having begat sons according to
    the sacred law, and having o ered sacri ces according
    to his ability, he may direct his mind to (the attain-
    ment of) nal liberation. 37. A twice-born man who
    seeks nal liberation, without having studied the Vedas,
    without having begotten sons, and without having of-
    fered sacri ces, sinks downwards. 38. Having performed
    the Ishti, sacred to the Lord of creatures (Pragapati),
    where (he gives) all his property as the sacri cial fee,
    having reposited the sacred res in himself, a Brahmana
    may depart from his house (as an ascetic). 39. Worlds,
    radiant in brilliancy, become (the portion) of him who
    recites (the texts regarding) Brahman and departs from
    his house (as an ascetic), after giving a promise of safety
    to all created beings. 40. For that twice-born man, by
    whom not the smallest danger even is caused to created
    beings, there will be no danger from any (quarter), after
    he is freed from his body. 41. Departing from his house
    fully provided with the means of puri cation (Pavitra),
    let him wander about absolutely silent, and caring noth-
    ing for enjoyments that may be o ered (to him). 42. Let
    him always wander alone, without any companion, in or-
    der to attain ( nal liberation), fully understanding that
    the solitary (man, who) neither forsakes nor is forsaken,
    gains his end. 43. He shall neither possess a re, nor a
    dwelling, he may go to a village for his food, (he shall
    be) indi erent to everything, rm of purpose, meditating
    (and) concentrating his mind on Brahman. 44. A pot-
    sherd (instead of an alms-bowl), the roots of trees (for
    a dwelling), coarse worn-out garments, life in solitude
    and indi erence towards everything, are the marks of
    one who has attained liberation. 45. Let him not desire
    to die, let him not desire to live; let him wait for (his
    appointed) time, as a servant (waits) for the payment
    of his wages. 46. Let him put down his foot puri ed
    by his sight, let him drink water puri ed by (straining
    with) a cloth, let him utter speech puri ed by truth, let
    him keep his heart pure. 47. Let him patiently bear
    hard words, let him not insult anybody, and let him not
    become anybody's enemy for the sake of this (perish-
    able) body. 48. Against an angry man let him not in
    return show anger, let him bless when he is cursed, and
    let him not utter speech, devoid of truth, scattered at
    the seven gates. 49. Delighting in what refers to the
    Soul, sitting (in the postures prescribed by the Yoga),
    independent (of external help), entirely abstaining from
    sensual enjoyments, with himself for his only compan-
    ion, he shall live in this world, desiring the bliss (of nal
    liberation). 50. Neither by (explaining) prodigies and
    omens, nor by skill in astrology and palmistry, nor by
    giving advice and by the exposition (of the Sastras), let
    him ever seek to obtain alms. 51. Let him not (in order
    to beg) go near a house lled with hermits, Brahmanas,
    birds, dogs, or other mendicants. 52. His hair, nails,
    and beard being clipped, carrying an alms-bowl, a sta ,
    and a water-pot, let him continually wander about, con-
    trolling himself and not hurting any creature. 53. His
    vessels shall not be made of metal, they shall be free from
    fractures; it is ordained that they shall be cleansed with
    water, like (the cups, called) Kamasa, at a sacri ce. 54.
    A gourd, a wooden bowl, an earthen (dish), or one made
    of split cane, Manu, the son of Svayambhu, has declared
    (to be) vessels (suitable) for an ascetic. 55. Let him
    go to beg once (a day), let him not be eager to obtain a
    large quantity (of alms); for an ascetic who eagerly seeks
    alms, attaches himself also to sensual enjoyments. 56.
    When no smoke ascends from (the kitchen), when the
    pestle lies motionless, when the embers have been extin-
    guished, when the people have nished their meal, when
    the remnants in the dishes have been removed, let the
    ascetic always go to beg. 57. Let him not be sorry when
    he obtains nothing, nor rejoice when he obtains (some-
    thing), let him (accept) so much only as will sustain life,
    let him not care about the (quality of his) utensils. 58.
    Let him disdain all (food) obtained in consequence of
    humble salutations, (for) even an ascetic who has at-
    tained nal liberation, is bound (with the fetters of the
    Samsara) by accepting (food given) in consequence of
    humble salutations. 59. By eating little, and by stand-
    ing and sitting in solitude, let him restrain his senses,
    if they are attracted by sensual objects. 60. By the
    restraint of his senses, by the destruction of love and ha-
    tred, and by the abstention from injuring the creatures,
    he becomes t for immortality. 61. Let him re
    ect on
    the transmigrations of men, caused by their sinful deeds,
    on their falling into hell, and on the torments in the
    world of Yama, 62. On the separation from their dear
    ones, on their union with hated men, on their being over-
    powered by age and being tormented with diseases, 63.
    On the departure of the individual soul from this body
    and its new birth in (another) womb, and on its wan-
    derings through ten thousand millions of existences, 64.
    On the in
    iction of pain on embodied (spirits), which is
    caused by demerit, and the gain of eternal bliss, which is
    caused by the attainment of their highest aim, (gained
    through) spiritual merit. 65. By deep meditation let
    him recognise the subtile nature of the supreme Soul,
    and its presence in all organisms, both the highest and
    the lowest. 66. To whatever order he may be attached,
    let him, though blemished (by a want of the external
    marks), ful l his duty, equal-minded towards all crea-
    tures; (for) the external mark (of the order) is not the
    cause of (the acquisition of) merit. 67. Though the fruit
    of the Kataka tree (the clearing-nut) makes water clear,
    yet the (latter) does not become limpid in consequence
    of the mention of the (fruit's) name. 68. In order to
    preserve living creatures, let him always by day and by
    night, even with pain to his body, walk, carefully scan-
    ning the ground. 69. In order to expiate (the death)
    of those creatures which he unintentionally injures by
    day or by night, an ascetic shall bathe and perform six
    suppressions of the breath. 70. Three suppressions of
    the breath even, performed according to the rule, and
    accompanied with the (recitation of the) Vyahritis and
    of the syllable Om, one must know to be the highest
    (form of) austerity for every Brahmana. 71. For as the
    impurities of metallic ores, melted in the blast (of a fur-
    nace), are consumed, even so the taints of the organs
    are destroyed through the suppression of the breath. 72.
    Let him destroy the taints through suppressions of the
    breath, (the production of) sin by xed attention, all
    sensual attachments by restraining (his senses and or-
    gans), and all qualities that are not lordly by meditation.
    73. Let him recognise by the practice of meditation the
    progress of the individual soul through beings of various
    kinds, (a progress) hard to understand for unregenerate
    men. 74. He who possesses the true insight (into the
    nature of the world), is not fettered by his deeds; but he
    who is destitute of that insight, is drawn into the circle
    of births and deaths. 75. By not injuring any creatures,
    by detaching the senses (from objects of enjoyment), by
    the rites prescribed in the Veda, and by rigorously prac-
    tising austerities, (men) gain that state (even) in this
    (world). 76-77. Let him quit this dwelling, composed of
    the ve elements, where the bones are the beams, which
    is held together by tendons (instead of cords), where the

    esh and the blood are the mortar, which is thatched
    with the skin, which is foul-smelling, lled with urine
    and ordure, infested by old age and sorrow, the seat of
    disease, harassed by pain, gloomy with passion, and per-
    ishable. 78. He who leaves this body, (be it by necessity)
    as a tree (that is torn from) the river-bank, or (freely)
    like a bird (that) quits a tree, is freed from the misery
    (of this world, dreadful like) a shark. 79. Making over
    (the merit of his own) good actions to his friends and
    (the guilt of) his evil deeds to his enemies, he attains
    the eternal Brahman by the practice of meditation. 80.
    When by the disposition (of his heart) he becomes indif-
    ferent to all objects, he obtains eternal happiness both
    in this world and after death. 81. He who has in this
    manner gradually given up all attachments and is freed
    from all the pairs (of opposites), reposes in Brahman
    alone. 82. All that has been declared (above) depends
    on meditation; for he who is not pro cient in the knowl-
    edge of that which refers to the Soul reaps not the full
    reward of the performance of rites. 83. Let him con-
    stantly recite (those texts of) the Veda which refer to
    the sacri ce, (those) referring to the deities, and (those)
    which treat of the Soul and are contained in the con-
    cluding portions of the Veda (Vedanta). 84. That is
    the refuge of the ignorant, and even that (the refuse)
    of those who know (the meaning of the Veda); that is
    (the protection) of those who seek (bliss in) heaven and
    of those who seek endless (beatitude). 85. A twice-born
    man who becomes an ascetic, after the successive perfor-
    mance of the above-mentioned acts, shakes o sin here
    below and reaches the highest Brahman.
    86. Thus the law (valid) for self-restrained ascetics
    has been explained to you; now listen to the (partic-
    ular) duties of those who give up (the rites prescribed
    by) the Veda. 87. The student, the householder, the
    hermit, and the ascetic, these (constitute) four separate
    orders, which all spring from (the order of) household-
    ers. 88. But all (or) even (any of) these orders, assumed
    successively in accordance with the Institutes (of the sa-
    cred law), lead the Brahmana who acts by the preced-
    ing (rules) to the highest state. 89. And in accordance
    with the precepts of the Veda and of the Smriti, the
    housekeeper is declared to be superior to all of them;
    for he supports the other three. 90. As all rivers, both
    great and small, nd a resting-place in the ocean, even so
    men of all orders nd protection with householders 91.
    By twice-born men belonging to (any of) these four or-
    ders, the tenfold law must be ever carefully obeyed. 92.
    Contentment, forgiveness, self-control, abstention from
    unrighteously appropriating anything, (obedience to the
    rules of) puri cation, coercion of the organs, wisdom,
    knowledge (of the supreme Soul), truthfulness, and ab-
    stention from anger, (form) the tenfold law. 93. Those
    Brahmanas who thoroughly study the tenfold law, and
    after studying obey it, enter the highest state. 94. A
    twice-born man who, with collected mind, follows the
    tenfold law and has paid his (three) debts, may, after
    learning the Vedanta according to the prescribed rule,
    become an ascetic. 95. Having given up (the perfor-
    mance of) all rites, throwing o the guilt of his (sinful)
    acts, subduing his organs and having studied the Veda,
    he may live at his ease under the protection of his son.
    96. He who has thus given up (the performance of) all
    rites, who is solely intent on his own (particular) ob-
    ject, (and) free from desires, destroys his guilt by his
    renunciation and obtains the highest state. 97. Thus
    the fourfold holy law of Brahmanas, which after death
    (yields) imperishable rewards, has been declared to you;
    now learn the duty of kings.
    1. I will declare the duties of kings, (and) show how
    a king should conduct himself, how he was created, and
    how (he can obtain) highest success. 2. A Kshatriya,
    who has received according to the rule the sacrament
    prescribed by the Veda, must duly protect this whole
    (world). 3. For, when these creatures, being without a
    king, through fear dispersed in all directions, the Lord
    created a king for the protection of this whole (creation),
    4. Taking (for that purpose) eternal particles of Indra,
    of the Wind, of Yama, of the Sun, of Fire, of Varuna, of
    the Moon, and of the Lord of wealth (Kubera). 5. Be-
    cause a king has been formed of particles of those lords
    of the gods, he therefore surpasses all created beings in
    lustre; 6. And, like the sun, he burns eyes and hearts;
    nor can anybody on earth even gaze on him. 7. Through
    his (supernatural) power he is Fire and Wind, he Sun
    and Moon, he the Lord of justice (Yama), he Kubera, he
    Varuna, he great Indra. 8. Even an infant king must not
    be despised, (from an idea) that he is a (mere) mortal;
    for he is a great deity in human form. 9. Fire burns
    one man only, if he carelessly approaches it, the re of
    a king's (anger) consumes the (whole) family, together
    with its cattle and its hoard of property. 10. Having fully
    considered the purpose, (his) power, and the place and
    the time, he assumes by turns many (di erent) shapes
    for the complete attainment of justice. 11. He, in whose
    favour resides Padma, the goddess of fortune, in whose
    valour dwells victory, in whose anger abides death, is
    formed of the lustre of all (gods). 12. The (man), who
    in his exceeding folly hates him, will doubtlessly per-
    ish; for the king quickly makes up his mind to destroy
    such (a man). 13. Let no (man), therefore, transgress
    that law which favourites, nor (his orders) which in
    pain on those in disfavour. 14. For the (king's) sake
    the Lord formerly created his own son, Punishment, the
    protector of all creatures, (an incarnation of) the law,
    formed of Brahman's glory. 15. Through fear of him all
    created beings, both the immovable and the movable, al-
    low themselves to be enjoyed and swerve not from their
    duties. 16. Having fully considered the time and the
    place (of the o ence), the strength and the knowledge
    (of the o ender), let him justly in
    ict that (punishment)
    on men who act unjustly. 17. Punishment is (in real-
    ity) the king (and) the male, that the manager of a airs,
    that the ruler, and that is called the surety for the four
    orders' obedience to the law. 18. Punishment alone gov-
    erns all created beings, punishment alone protects them,
    punishment watches over them while they sleep; the wise
    declare punishment (to be identical with) the law. 19.
    If (punishment) is properly in
    icted after (due) consid-
    eration, it makes all people happy; but in
    icted without
    consideration, it destroys everything. 20. If the king did
    not, without tiring, in
    ict punishment on those worthy
    to be punished, the stronger would roast the weaker, like
    sh on a spit; 21. The crow would eat the sacri cial cake
    and the dog would lick the sacri cial viands, and own-
    ership would not remain with any one, the lower ones
    would (usurp the place of) the higher ones. 22. The
    whole world is kept in order by punishment, for a guilt-
    less man is hard to nd; through fear of punishment the
    whole world yields the enjoyments (which it owes). 23.
    The gods, the Danavas, the Gandharvas, the Rakshasas,
    the bird and snake deities even give the enjoyments (due
    from them) only, if they are tormented by (the fear of)
    punishment. 24. All castes (varna) would be corrupted
    (by intermixture), all barriers would be broken through,
    and all men would rage (against each other) in conse-
    quence of mistakes with respect to punishment. 25. But
    where Punishment with a black hue and red eyes stalks
    about, destroying sinners, there the subjects are not dis-
    turbed, provided that he who in
    icts it discerns well. 26.
    They declare that king to be a just in
    icter of punish-
    ment, who is truthful, who acts after due consideration,
    who is wise, and who knows (the respective value of)
    virtue, pleasure, and wealth. 27. A king who properly
    icts (punishment), prospers with respect to (those)
    three (means of happiness); but he who is voluptuous,
    partial, and deceitful will be destroyed, even through the
    (unjust) punishment (which he in
    icts). 28. Punish-
    ment (possesses) a very bright lustre, and is hard to be
    administered by men with unimproved minds; it strikes
    down the king who swerves from his duty, together with
    his relatives. 29. Next it will aict his castles, his ter-
    ritories, the whole world together with the movable and
    immovable (creation), likewise the sages and the gods,
    who (on the failure of o erings) ascend to the sky. 30.
    (Punishment) cannot be in
    icted justly by one who has
    no assistant, (nor) by a fool, (nor) by a covetous man,
    (nor) by one whose mind is unimproved, (nor) by one
    addicted to sensual pleasures. 31. By him who is pure
    (and) faithful to his promise, who acts according to the
    Institutes (of the sacred law), who has good assistants
    and is wise, punishment can be (justly) in
    icted. 32.
    Let him act with justice in his own domain, with rigour
    chastise his enemies, behave without duplicity towards
    his friends, and be lenient towards Brahmanas. 33. The
    fame of a king who behaves thus, even though he subsist
    by gleaning, is spread in the world, like a drop of oil on
    water. 34. But the fame of a king who acts in a contrary
    manner and who does not subdue himself, diminishes in
    extent among men like a drop of clari ed butter in wa-
    ter. 35. The king has been created (to be) the protector
    of the castes (varna) and orders, who, all according to
    their rank, discharge their several duties.
    36. Whatever must be done by him and by his ser-
    vants for the protection of his people, that I will fully
    declare to you in due order. 37. Let the king, after rising
    early in the morning, worship Brahmanas who are well
    versed in the threefold sacred science and learned (in
    polity), and follow their advice. 38. Let him daily wor-
    ship aged Brahmanas who know the Veda and are pure;
    for he who always worships aged men, is honoured even
    by Rakshasas. 39. Let him, though he may already be
    modest, constantly learn modesty from them; for a king
    who is modest never perishes. 40. Through a want of
    modesty many kings have perished, together with their
    belongings; through modesty even hermits in the forest
    have gained kingdoms. 41. Through a want of humility
    Vena perished, likewise king Nahusha, Sudas, the son of
    Pigavana, Sumukha, and Nemi. 42. But by humility
    Prithu and Manu gained sovereignty, Kubera the posi-
    tion of the Lord of wealth, and the son of Gadhi the
    rank of a Brahmana. 43. From those versed in the three
    Vedas let him learn the threefold (sacred science), the
    primeval science of government, the science of dialectics,
    and the knowledge of the (supreme) Soul; from the peo-
    ple (the theory of) the (various) trades and professions.
    44. Day and night he must strenuously exert himself to
    conquer his senses; for he (alone) who has conquered his
    own senses, can keep his subjects in obedience. 45. Let
    him carefully shun the ten vices, springing from love of
    pleasure, and the eight, proceeding from wrath, which
    (all) end in misery. 46. For a king who is attached
    to the vices springing from love of pleasure, loses his
    wealth and his virtue, but (he who is given) to those
    arising from anger, (loses) even his life. 47. Hunting,
    gambling, sleeping by day, censoriousness, (excess with)
    women, drunkenness, (an inordinate love for) dancing,
    singing, and music, and useless travel are the tenfold
    set (of vices) springing from love of pleasure. 48. Tale-
    bearing, violence, treachery, envy, slandering, (unjust)
    seizure of property, reviling, and assault are the eight-
    fold set (of vices) produced by wrath. 49. That greed-
    iness which all wise men declare to be the root even of
    both these (sets), let him carefully conquer; both sets (of
    vices) are produced by that. 50. Drinking, dice, women,
    and hunting, these four (which have been enumerated)
    in succession, he must know to be the most pernicious
    in the set that springs from love of pleasure. 51. Do-
    ing bodily injury, reviling, and the seizure of property,
    these three he must know to be the most pernicious in
    the set produced by wrath. 52. A self-controlled (king)
    should know that in this set of seven, which prevails ev-
    erywhere, each earlier-named vice is more abominable
    (than those named later). 53. (On a comparison) be-
    tween vice and death, vice is declared to be more perni-
    cious; a vicious man sinks to the nethermost (hell), he
    who dies, free from vice, ascends to heaven. 54. Let
    him appoint seven or eight ministers whose ancestors
    have been royal servants, who are versed in the sciences,
    heroes skilled in the use of weapons and descended from
    (noble) families and who have been tried. 55. Even an
    undertaking easy (in itself) is (sometimes) hard to be
    accomplished by a single man; how much (harder is it
    for a king), especially (if he has) no assistant, (to gov-
    ern) a kingdom which yields great revenues. 56. Let
    him daily consider with them the ordinary (business,
    referring to) peace and war, (the four subjects called)
    sthana, the revenue, the (manner of) protecting (him-
    self and his kingdom), and the sancti cation of his gains
    (by pious gifts). 57. Having ( rst) ascertained the opin-
    ion of each (minister) separately and (then the views)
    of all together, let him do what is (most) bene cial for
    him in his a airs. 58. But with the most distinguished
    among them all, a learned Brahmana, let the king de-
    liberate on the most important a airs which relate to
    the six measures of royal policy. 59. Let him, full of
    con dence, always entrust to that (ocial) all business;
    having taken his nal resolution with him, let him af-
    terwards begin to act. 60. He must also appoint other
    ocials, (men) of integrity, (who are) wise, rm, well
    able to collect money, and well tried. 61. As many per-
    sons as the due performance of his business requires, so
    many skilful and clever (men), free from sloth, let him
    appoint. 62. Among them let him employ the brave, the
    skilful, the high-born, and the honest in (oces for the
    collection of) revenue, (e.g.) in mines, manufactures,
    and storehouses, (but) the timid in the interior of his
    palace. 63. Let him also appoint an ambassador who is
    versed in all sciences, who understands hints, expressions
    of the face and gestures, who is honest, skilful, and of
    (noble) family. 64. (Such) an ambassador is commended
    to a king (who is) loyal, honest, skilful, possessing a good
    memory, who knows the (proper) place and time (for ac-
    tion, who is) handsome, fearless, and eloquent. 65. The
    army depends on the ocial (placed in charge of it), the
    due control (of the subjects) on the army, the treasury
    and the (government of) the realm on the king, peace
    and its opposite (war) on the ambassador. 66. For the
    ambassador alone makes (kings') allies and separates al-
    lies; the ambassador transacts that business by which
    (kings) are disunited or not. 67. With respect to the af-
    fairs let the (ambassador) explore the expression of the
    countenance, the gestures and actions of the (foreign
    king) through the gestures and actions of his con den-
    tial (advisers), and (discover) his designs among his ser-
    vants. 68. Having learnt exactly (from his ambassador)
    the designs of the foreign king, let (the king) take such
    measures that he does not bring evil on himself. 69.
    Let him settle in a country which is open and has a
    dry climate, where grain is abundant, which is chie
    (inhabited) by Aryans, not subject to epidemic diseases
    (or similar troubles), and pleasant, where the vassals
    are obedient and his own (people easily) nd their liveli-
    hood. 70. Let him build (there) a town, making for
    his safety a fortress, protected by a desert, or a fortress
    built of (stone and) earth, or one protected by water or
    trees, or one (formed by an encampment of armed) men
    or a hill-fort. 71. Let him make every e ort to secure
    a hill-fort, for amongst all those (fortresses mentioned)
    a hill-fort is distinguished by many superior qualities.
    72. The rst three of those (various kinds of fortresses)
    are inhabited by wild beasts, animals living in holes and
    aquatic animals, the last three by monkeys, men, and
    gods respectively. 73. As enemies do not hurt these (be-
    ings, when they are) sheltered by (their) fortresses, even
    so foes (can) not injure a king who has taken refuge in
    his fort. 74. One bowman, placed on a rampart, is a
    match in battle for one hundred (foes), one hundred for
    ten thousand; hence it is prescribed (in the Sastras that
    a king will posses) a fortress. 75. Let that (fort) be well
    supplied with weapons, money, grain and beasts of bur-
    den, with Brahmanas, with artisans, with engines, with
    fodder, and with water. 76. Let him cause to be built
    for himself, in the centre of it, a spacious palace, (well)
    protected, habitable in every season, resplendent (with
    whitewash), supplied with water and trees. 77. Inhab-
    iting that, let him wed a consort of equal caste (varna),
    who possesses auspicious marks (on her body), and is
    born in a great family, who is charming and possesses
    beauty and excellent qualities. 78. Let him appoint a
    domestic priest (purohita) and choose ociating priests
    (ritvig); they shall perform his domestic rites and the
    (sacri ces) for which three res are required. 79. A king
    shall o er various (Srauta) sacri ces at which liberal fees
    (are distributed), and in order to acquire merit, he shall
    give to Brahmanas enjoyments and wealth. 80. Let him
    cause the annual revenue in his kingdom to be collected
    by trusty (ocials), let him obey the sacred law in (his
    transactions with) the people, and behave like a father
    towards all men. 81. For the various (branches of busi-
    ness) let him appoint intelligent supervisors; they shall
    inspect all (the acts) of those men who transact his busi-
    ness. 82. Let him honour those Brahmanas who have
    returned from their teacher's house (after studying the
    Veda); for that (money which is given) to Brahmanas is
    declared to be an imperishable treasure for kings. 83.
    Neither thieves nor foes can take it, nor can it be lost;
    hence an imperishable store must be deposited by kings
    with Brahmanas. 84. The o ering made through the
    mouth of a Brahmana, which is neither spilt, nor falls
    (on the ground), nor ever perishes, is far more excellent
    than Agnihotras. 85. A gift to one who is not a Brah-
    mana (yields) the ordinary (reward; a gift) to one who
    calls himself a Brahmana, a double (reward); a gift to a
    well-read Brahmana, a hundred-thousandfold (reward);
    (a gift) to one who knows the Veda and the Angas (Veda-
    paraga, a reward) without end. 86. For according to the
    particular qualities of the recipient and according to the
    faith (of the giver) a small or a great reward will be ob-
    tained for a gift in the next world. 87. A king who, while
    he protects his people, is de ed by (foes), be they equal
    in strength, or stronger, or weaker, must not shrink from
    battle, remembering the duty of Kshatriyas. 88. Not to
    turn back in battle, to protect the people, to honour the
    Brahmanas, is the best means for a king to secure happi-
    ness. 89. Those kings who, seeking to slay each other in
    battle, ght with the utmost exertion and do not turn
    back, go to heaven. 90. When he ghts with his foes
    in battle, let him not strike with weapons concealed (in
    wood), nor with (such as are) barbed, poisoned, or the
    points of which are blazing with re. 91. Let him not
    strike one who (in
    ight) has climbed on an eminence,
    nor a eunuch, nor one who joins the palms of his hands
    (in supplication), nor one who (
    ees) with
    ying hair,
    nor one who sits down, nor one who says 'I am thine;'
    92. Nor one who sleeps, nor one who has lost his coat
    of mail, nor one who is naked, nor one who is disarmed,
    nor one who looks on without taking part in the ght,
    nor one who is ghting with another (foe); 93. Nor one
    whose weapons are broken, nor one aicted (with sor-
    row), nor one who has been grievously wounded, nor
    one who is in fear, nor one who has turned to
    (but in all these cases let him) remember the duty (of
    honourable warriors). 94. But the (Kshatriya) who is
    slain in battle, while he turns back in fear, takes upon
    himself all the sin of his master, whatever (it may be);
    95. And whatever merit (a man) who is slain in
    may have gained for the next (world), all that his mas-
    ter takes. 96. Chariots and horses, elephants, parasols,
    money, grain, cattle, women, all sorts of (marketable)
    goods and valueless metals belong to him who takes
    them (singly) conquering (the possessor). 97. A text
    of the Veda (declares) that (the soldiers) shall present
    a choice portion (of the booty) to the king; what has
    not been taken singly, must be distributed by the king
    among all the soldiers.
    98. Thus has been declared the blameless, primeval
    law for warriors; from this law a Kshatriya must not de-
    part, when he strikes his foes in battle. 99. Let him
    strive to gain what he has not yet gained; what he has
    gained let him carefully preserve; let him augment what
    he preserves, and what he has augmented let him be-
    stow on worthy men. 100. Let him know that these
    are the four means for securing the aims of human (ex-
    istence); let him, without ever tiring, properly employ
    them. 101. What he has not (yet) gained, let him seek
    (to gain) by (his) army; what he has gained, let him
    protect by careful attention; what he has protected, let
    him augment by (various modes of) increasing it; and
    what he has augmented, let him liberally bestow (on
    worthy men). 102. Let him be ever ready to strike, his
    prowess constantly displayed, and his secrets constantly
    concealed, and let him constantly explore the weaknesses
    of his foe. 103. Of him who is always ready to strike,
    the whole world stands in awe; let him therefore make
    all creatures subject to himself even by the employment
    of force. 104. Let him ever act without guile, and on
    no account treacherously; carefully guarding himself, let
    him always fathom the treachery which his foes employ.
    105. His enemy must not know his weaknesses, but he
    must know the weaknesses of his enemy; as the tortoise
    (hides its limbs), even so let him secure the members
    (of his government against treachery), let him protect
    his own weak points. 106. Let him plan his undertak-
    ings (patiently meditating) like a heron; like a lion, let
    him put forth his strength; like a wolf, let him snatch
    (his prey); like a hare, let him double in retreat. 107.
    When he is thus engaged in conquest, let him subdue
    all the opponents whom he may nd, by the (four) ex-
    pedients, conciliation and the rest. 108. If they cannot
    be stopped by the three rst expedients, then let him,
    overcoming them by force alone, gradually bring them
    to subjection. 109. Among the four expedients, concilia-
    tion and the rest, the learned always recommend concil-
    iation and (the employment of) force for the prosperity
    of kingdoms. 110. As the weeder plucks up the weeds
    and preserves the corn, even so let the king protect his
    kingdom and destroy his opponents. 111. That king
    who through folly rashly oppresses his kingdom, (will),
    together with his relatives, ere long be deprived of his
    life and of his kingdom. 112. As the lives of living crea-
    tures are destroyed by tormenting their bodies, even so
    the lives of kings are destroyed by their oppressing their
    kingdoms. 113. In governing his kingdom let him always
    observe the (following) rules; for a king who governs his
    kingdom well, easily prospers. 114. Let him place a
    company of soldiers, commanded (by a trusty ocer),
    the midst of two, three, ve or hundreds of villages, (to
    be) a protection of the kingdom. 115. Let him appoint
    a lord over (each) village, as well as lords of ten villages,
    lords of twenty, lords of a hundred, and lords of a thou-
    sand. 116. The lord of one village himself shall inform
    the lord of ten villages of the crimes committed in his
    village, and the ruler of ten (shall make his report) to the
    ruler of twenty. 117. But the ruler of twenty shall report
    all such (matters) to the lord of a hundred, and the lord
    of a hundred shall himself give information to the lord
    of a thousand. 118. Those (articles) which the villagers
    ought to furnish daily to the king, such as food, drink,
    and fuel, the lord of one village shall obtain. 119. The
    ruler of ten (villages) shall enjoy one kula (as much land
    as suces for one family), the ruler of twenty ve kulas,
    the superintendent of a hundred villages (the revenues
    of) one village, the lord of a thousand (the revenues of)
    a town. 120. The a airs of these (ocials), which are
    connected with (their) villages and their separate busi-
    ness, another minister of the king shall inspect, (who
    must be) loyal and never remiss; 121. And in each town
    let him appoint one superintendent of all a airs, ele-
    vated in rank, formidable, (resembling) a planet among
    the stars. 122. Let that (man) always personally visit
    by turns all those (other ocials); let him properly ex-
    plore their behaviour in their districts through spies (ap-
    pointed to) each. 123. For the servants of the king, who
    are appointed to protect (the people), generally become
    knaves who seize the property of others; let him pro-
    tect his subjects against such (men). 124. Let the king
    con scate the whole property of those (ocials) who,
    evil-minded, may take money from suitors, and banish
    them. 125. For women employed in the royal service
    and for menial servants, let him x a daily maintenance,
    in proportion to their position and to their work. 126.
    One pana must be given (daily) as wages to the lowest,
    six to the highest, likewise clothing every six months
    and one drona of grain every month. 127. Having well
    considered (the rates of) purchase and (of) sale, (the
    length of) the road, (the expense for) food and condi-
    ments, the charges of securing the goods, let the king
    make the traders pay duty. 128. After (due) consider-
    ation the king shall always x in his realm the duties
    and taxes in such a manner that both he himself and
    the man who does the work receive (their due) reward.
    129. As the leech, the calf, and the bee take their food
    little by little, even so must the king draw from his realm
    moderate annual taxes. 130. A ftieth part of (the incre-
    ments on) cattle and gold may be taken by the king, and
    the eighth, sixth, or twelfth part of the crops. 131. He
    may also take the sixth part of trees, meat, honey, clar-
    i ed butter, perfumes, (medical) herbs, substances used
    avouring food,
    owers, roots, and fruit; 132. Of
    leaves, pot-herbs, grass, (objects) made of cane, skins,
    of earthen vessels, and all (articles) made of stone. 133.
    Though dying (with want), a king must not levy a tax
    on Srotriyas, and no Srotriya, residing in his kingdom,
    must perish from hunger. 134. The kingdom of that
    king, in whose dominions a Srotriya pines with hunger,
    will even, ere long, be aicted by famine. 135. Hav-
    ing ascertained his learning in the Veda and (the purity
    of) his conduct, the king shall provide for him means
    of subsistence in accordance with the sacred law, and
    shall protect him in every way, as a father (protects) the
    lawful son of his body. 136. Whatever meritorious acts
    (such a Brahmana) performs under the full protection
    of the king, thereby the king's length of life, wealth, and
    kingdom increase. 137. Let the king make the common
    inhabitants of his realm who live by trac, pay annu-
    ally some tri
    e, which is called a tax. 138. Mechanics
    and artisans, as well as Sudras who subsist by manual
    labour, he may cause to work (for himself) one (day) in
    each month. 139. Let him not cut up his own root (by
    levying no taxes), nor the root of other (men) by exces-
    sive greed; for by cutting up his own root (or theirs),
    he makes himself or them wretched. 140. Let the king,
    having carefully considered (each) a air, be both sharp
    and gentle; for a king who is both sharp and gentle is
    highly respected. 141. When he is tired with the inspec-
    tion of the business of men, let him place on that seat
    (of justice) his chief minister, (who must be) acquainted
    with the law, wise, self-controlled, and descended from a
    (noble) family. 142. Having thus arranged all the a airs
    (of) his (government), he shall zealously and carefully
    protect his subjects. 143. That (monarch) whose sub-
    jects are carried o by robbers (Dasyu) from his king-
    dom, while they loudly call (for help), and he and his
    servants are (quietly) looking on, is a dead and not a
    living (king). 144. The highest duty of a Kshatriya is to
    protect his subjects, for the king who enjoys the rewards,
    just mentioned, is bound to (discharge that) duty. 145.
    Having risen in the last watch of the night, having per-
    formed (the rite of) personal puri cation, having, with
    a collected mind, o ered oblations in the re, and hav-
    ing worshipped Brahmanas, he shall enter the hall of
    audience which must possess the marks // (considered)
    auspicious (for a dwelling). 146. Tarrying there, he shall
    gratify all subjects (who come to see him by a kind re-
    ception) and afterwards dismiss them; having dismissed
    his subjects, he shall take counsel with his ministers.
    147. Ascending the back of a hill or a terrace, (and)
    retiring (there) in a lonely place, or in a solitary for-
    est, let him consult with them unobserved. 148. That
    king whose secret plans other people, (though) assem-
    bled (for the purpose), do not discover, (will) enjoy the
    whole earth, though he be poor in treasure. 149. At the
    time of consultation let him cause to be removed idiots,
    the dumb, the blind, and the deaf, animals, very aged
    men, women, barbarians, the sick, and those de cient
    in limbs. 150. (Such) despicable (persons), likewise ani-
    mals, and particularly women betray secret council; for
    that reason he must be careful with respect to them.
    151. At midday or at midnight, when his mental and
    bodily fatigues are over, let him deliberate, either with
    himself alone or with his (ministers), on virtue, plea-
    sure, and wealth, 152. On (reconciling) the attainment
    of these (aims) which are opposed to each other, on be-
    stowing his daughters in marriage, and on keeping his
    sons (from harm), 153. On sending ambassadors, on the
    completion of undertakings (already begun), on the be-
    haviour of (the women in) his harem, and on the doings
    of his spies. 154. On the whole eightfold business and
    the ve classes (of spies), on the goodwill or enmity and
    the conduct of the circle (of neighbours he must) care-
    fully (re
    ect). 155. On the conduct of the middlemost
    (prince), on the doings of him who seeks conquest, on the
    behaviour of the neutral (king), and (on that) of the foe
    (let him) sedulously (meditate). 156. These (four) con-
    stituents (prakriti, form), brie
    y (speaking), the foun-
    dation of the circle (of neighbours); besides, eight others
    are enumerated (in the Institutes of Polity) and (thus)
    the (total) is declared to be twelve. 157. The minister,
    the kingdom, the fortress, the treasury, and the army
    are ve other (constituent elements of the circle); for,
    these are mentioned in connexion with each (of the rst
    twelve; thus the whole circle consists), brie
    y (speak-
    ing, of) seventy-two (constituent parts). 158. Let (the
    king) consider as hostile his immediate neighbour and
    the partisan of (such a) foe, as friendly the immediate
    neighbour of his foe, and as neutral (the king) beyond
    those two. 159. Let him overcome all of them by means
    of the (four) expedients, conciliation and the rest, (em-
    ployed) either singly or conjointly, (or) by bravery and
    policy (alone). 160. Let him constantly think of the
    six measures of royal policy (guna, viz.) alliance, war,
    marching, halting, dividing the army, and seeking pro-
    tection. 161. Having carefully considered the business
    (in hand), let him resort to sitting quiet or marching,
    alliance or war, dividing his forces or seeking protection
    (as the case may require). 162. But the king must know
    that there are two kinds of alliances and of wars, (like-
    wise two) of both marching and sitting quiet, and two
    (occasions for) seeking protection.) 163. An alliance
    which yields present and future advantages, one must
    know to be of two descriptions, (viz.) that when one
    marches together (with an ally) and the contrary (when
    the allies act separately). 164. War is declared to be
    of two kinds, (viz.) that which is undertaken in season
    or out of season, by oneself and for one's own purposes,
    and (that waged to avenge) an injury done to a friend.
    165. Marching (to attack) is said to be twofold, (viz.
    that undertaken) by one alone when an urgent matter
    has suddenly arisen, and (that undertaken) by one al-
    lied with a friend. 166. Sitting quiet is stated to be
    of two kinds, (viz. that incumbent) on one who has
    gradually been weakened by fate or in consequence of
    former acts, and (that) in favour of a friend. 167. If the
    army stops (in one place) and its master (in another) in
    order to e ect some purpose, that is called by those ac-
    quainted with the virtues of the measures of royal policy,
    the twofold division of the forces. 168. Seeking refuge is
    declared to be of two kinds, ( rst) for the purpose of at-
    taining an advantage when one is harassed by enemies,
    (secondly) in order to become known among the virtu-
    ous (as the protege of a powerful king). 169. When (the
    king) knows (that) at some future time his superiority
    (is) certain, and (that) at the time present (he will suf-
    fer) little injury, then let him have recourse to peaceful
    measures. 170. But when he thinks all his subjects to be
    exceedingly contented, and (that he) himself (is) most
    exalted (in power), then let him make war. 171. When
    he knows his own army to be cheerful in disposition and
    strong, and (that) of his enemy the reverse, then let him
    march against his foe. 172. But if he is very weak in
    chariots and beasts of burden and in troops, then let
    him carefully sit quiet, gradually conciliating his foes.
    173. When the king knows the enemy to be stronger
    in every respect, then let him divide his army and thus
    achieve his purpose. 174. But when he is very easily as-
    sailable by the forces of the enemy, then let him quickly
    seek refuge with a righteous, powerful king. 175. That
    (prince) who will coerce both his (disloyal) subjects and
    the army of the foe, let him ever serve with every e ort
    like a Guru. 176. When, even in that (condition), he
    sees (that) evil is caused by (such) protection, let him
    without hesitation have recourse to war. 177. By all (the
    four) expedients a politic prince must arrange (matters
    so) that neither friends, nor neutrals, nor foes are supe-
    rior to himself. 178. Let him fully consider the future
    and the immediate results of all undertakings, and the
    good and bad sides of all past (actions). 179. He who
    knows the good and the evil (which will result from his
    acts) in the future, is quick in forming resolutions for
    the present, and understands the consequences of past
    (actions), will not be conquered. 180. Let him arrange
    everything in such a manner that no ally, no neutral or
    foe may injure him; that is the sum of political wisdom.
    181. But if the king undertakes an expedition against a
    hostile kingdom, then let him gradually advance, in the
    following manner, against his foe's capital. 182. Let the
    king undertake his march in the ne month Margasir-
    sha, or towards the months of Phalguna and Kaitra,
    according to the (condition of his) army. 183. Even at
    other times, when he has a certain prospect of victory, or
    when a disaster has befallen his foe, he may advance to
    attack him. 184. But having duly arranged (all a airs)
    in his original (kingdom) and what relates to the expe-
    dition, having secured a basis (for his operations) and
    having duly dispatched his spies; 185. Having cleared
    the three kinds of roads, and (having made) his sixfold
    army (ecient), let him leisurely proceed in the manner
    prescribed for warfare against the enemy's capital. 186.
    Let him be very much on his guard against a friend who
    secretly serves the enemy and against (deserters) who
    return (from the enemy's camp); for such (men are) the
    most dangerous foes. 187. Let him march on his road,
    arraying (his troops) like a sta (i.e. in an oblong), or
    like a waggon (i.e. in a wedge), or like a boar (i.e. in a
    rhombus), or like a Makara (i.e. in two triangles, with
    the apices joined), or like a pin (i.e. in a long line),
    or like a Garuda (i.e. in a rhomboid with far-extended
    wings). 188. From whatever (side) he apprehends dan-
    ger, in that (direction) let him extend his troops, and
    let him always himself encamp in an array, shaped like a
    lotus. 189. Let him allot to the commander-in-chief, to
    the (subordinate) general, (and to the superior ocers)
    places in all directions, and let him turn his front in that
    direction whence he fears danger. 190. On all sides let
    him place troops of soldiers, on whom he can rely, with
    whom signals have been arranged, who are expert both
    in sustaining a charge and in charging, fearless and loyal.
    191. Let him make a small number of soldiers ght in
    close order, at his pleasure let him extend a large num-
    ber in loose ranks; or let him make them ght, arranging
    (a small number) in the needle-array, (and a large num-
    ber) in the thunderbolt-array. 192. On even ground
    let him ght with chariots and horses, in water-bound
    places with boats and elephants, on (ground) covered
    with trees and shrubs with bows, on hilly ground with
    swords, targets, (and other) weapons. 193. (Men born
    in) Kurukshetra, Matsyas, Pankalas, and those born in
    Surasena, let him cause to ght in the van of the battle,
    as well as (others who are) tall and light. 194. After
    arranging his troops, he should encourage them (by an
    address) and carefully inspect them; he should also mark
    the behaviour (of the soldiers) when they engage the en-
    emy. 195. When he has shut up his foe (in a town), let
    him sit encamped, harass his kingdom, and continually
    spoil his grass, food, fuel, and water. 196. Likewise let
    him destroy the tanks, ramparts, and ditches, and let
    him assail the (foe unawares) and alarm him at night.
    197. Let him instigate to rebellion those who are open
    to such instigations, let him be informed of his (foe's)
    doings, and, when fate is propitious, let him ght with-
    out fear, trying to conquer. 198. He should (however)
    try to conquer his foes by conciliation, by (well-applied)
    gifts, and by creating dissension, used either separately
    or conjointly, never by ghting, (if it can be avoided.)
    199. For when two (princes) ght, victory and defeat
    in the battle are, as experience teaches, uncertain; let
    him therefore avoid an engagement. 200. (But) if even
    those three before-mentioned expedients fail, then let
    him, duly exerting himself, ght in such a manner that
    he may completely conquer his enemies. 201. When he
    has gained victory, let him duly worship the gods and
    honour righteous Brahmanas, let him grant exemptions,
    and let him cause promises of safety to be proclaimed.
    202. But having fully ascertained the wishes of all the
    (conquered), let him place there a relative of the (van-
    quished ruler on the throne), and let him impose his
    conditions. 203. Let him make authoritative the lawful
    (customs) of the (inhabitants), just as they are stated (to
    be), and let him honour the (new king) and his chief ser-
    vants with precious gifts. 204. The seizure of desirable
    property which causes displeasure, and its distribution
    which causes pleasure, are both recommendable, (if they
    are) resorted to at the proper time. 205. All undertak-
    ings (in) this (world) depend both on the ordering of fate
    and on human exertion; but among these two (the ways
    of) fate are unfathomable; in the case of man's work ac-
    tion is possible. 206. Or (the king, bent on conquest),
    considering a friend, gold, and land (to be) the triple
    result (of an expedition), may, using diligent care, make
    peace with (his foe) and return (to his realm). 207. Hav-
    ing paid due attention to any king in the circle (of neigh-
    bouring states) who might attack him in the rear, and to
    his supporter who opposes the latter, let (the conqueror)
    secure the fruit of the expedition from (the prince whom
    he attacks), whether (he may have become) friendly or
    (remained) hostile. 208. By gaining gold and land a
    king grows not so much in strength as by obtaining a
    rm friend, (who), though weak, (may become) power-
    ful in the future. 209. A weak friend (even) is greatly
    commended, who is righteous (and) grateful, whose peo-
    ple are contented, who is attached and persevering in his
    undertakings. 210. The wise declare him (to be) a most
    dangerous foe, who is wise, of noble race, brave, clever,
    liberal, grateful, and rm. 211. Behaviour worthy of
    an Aryan, knowledge of men, bravery, a compassionate
    disposition, and great liberality are the virtues of a neu-
    tral (who may be courted). 212. Let the king, without
    hesitation, quit for his own sake even a country (which
    is) salubrious, fertile, and causing an increase of cattle.
    213. For times of need let him preserve his wealth; at
    the expense of his wealth let him preserve his wife; let
    him at all events preserve himself even by (giving up)
    his wife and his wealth. 214. A wise (king), seeing that
    all kinds of misfortunes violently assail him at the same
    time, should try all (the four) expedients, be it together
    or separately, (in order to save himself.) 215. On the
    person who employs the expedients, on the business to
    be accomplished, and on all the expedients collectively,
    on these three let him ponder and strive to accomplish
    his ends. 216. Having thus consulted with his ministers
    on all these (matters), having taken exercise, and hav-
    ing bathed afterwards, the king may enter the harem
    at midday in order to dine. 217. There he may eat
    food, (which has been prepared) by faithful, incorrupt-
    ible (servants) who know the (proper) time (for dining),
    which has been well examined (and hallowed) by sacred
    texts that destroy poison. 218. Let him mix all his food
    with medicines (that are) antidotes against poison, and
    let him always be careful to wear gems which destroy
    poison. 219. Well-tried females whose toilet and orna-
    ments have been examined, shall attentively serve him
    with fans, water, and perfumes. 220. In like manner let
    him be careful about his carriages, bed, seat, bath, toilet,
    and all his ornaments. 221. When he has dined, he may
    divert himself with his wives in the harem; but when he
    has diverted himself, he must, in due time, again think
    of the a airs of state. 222. Adorned (with his robes
    of state), let him again inspect his ghting men, all his
    chariots and beasts of burden, the weapons and accou-
    trements. 223. Having performed his twilight-devotions,
    let him, well armed, hear in an inner apartment the do-
    ings of those who make secret reports and of his spies.
    224. But going to another secret apartment and dismiss-
    ing those people, he may enter the harem, surrounded
    by female (servants), in order to dine again. 225. Having
    eaten there something for the second time, and having
    been recreated by the sound of music, let him go to rest
    and rise at the proper time free from fatigue. 226. A
    king who is in good health must observe these rules; but,
    if he is indisposed, he may entrust all this (business) to
    his servants.
    1. A king, desirous of investigating law cases, must
    enter his court of ju-stice, preserving a di-gni ed de-
    meanour, together with Brahmanas and with experi-
    enced councillors. 2. There, either seated or standing,
    raising his right arm, without ostentation in his dress
    and ornaments, let him examine the business of suitors,
    3. Daily (deciding) one after another (all cases) which
    fall under the eighteen titles (of the law) according to
    principles drawn from local usages. and from the Insti-
    tutes of the sacred law. 4. Of those (titles) the rst
    is the non-payment of debts, (then follow), (2) deposit
    and pledge, (3) sale without ownership, (4) concerns
    among partners, and (5) resumption of gifts, 5. (6) Non-
    payment of wages, (7) non-performance of agreements,
    (8) rescission of sale and purchase, (9) disputes between
    the owner (of cattle) and his servants, 6. (10) Disputes
    regarding boundaries, (11) assault and (12) defamation,
    (13) theft, (14) robbery and violence, (15) adultery, 7.
    (16) Duties of man and wife, (17) partition (of inheri-
    tance), (18) gambling and betting; these are in this world
    the eighteen topics which give rise to lawsuits. 8. De-
    pending on the eternal law, let him decide the suits of
    men who mostly contend on the titles just mentioned. 9.
    But if the king does not personally investigate the suits,
    then let him appoint a learned Brahmana to try them.
    10. That (man) shall enter that most excellent court,
    accompanied by three assessors, and fully consider (all)
    causes (brought) before the (king), either sitting down
    or standing. 11. Where three Brahmanas versed in the
    Vedas and the learned (judge) appointed by the king sit
    down, they call that the court of (four-faced) Brahman.
    12. But where justice, wounded by injustice, approaches
    and the judges do not extract the dart, there (they also)
    are wounded (by that dart of injustice). 13. Either the
    court must not be entered, or the truth must be spo-
    ken; a man who either says nothing or speaks falsely,
    becomes sinful. 14. Where justice is destroyed by in-
    justice, or truth by falsehood, while the judges look on,
    there they shall also be destroyed. 15. 'Justice, being
    violated, destroys; justice, being preserved, preserves:
    therefore justice must not be violated, lest violated jus-
    tice destroy us.' 16. For divine justice (is said to be) a
    bull (vrisha); that (man) who violates it (kurute 'lam)
    the gods consider to be (a man despicable like) a Sudra
    (vrishala); let him, therefore, beware of violating jus-
    tice. 17. The only friend who follows men even after
    death is justice; for everything else is lost at the same
    time when the body (perishes). 18. One quarter of (the
    guilt of) an unjust (decision) falls on him who commit-
    ted (the crime), one quarter on the (false) witness, one
    quarter on all the judges, one quarter on the king. 19.
    But where he who is worthy of condemnation is con-
    demned, the king is free from guilt, and the judges are
    saved (from sin); the guilt falls on the perpetrator (of
    the crime alone). 20. A Brahmana who subsists only
    by the name of his caste (gati), or one who merely calls
    himself a Brahmana (though his origin be uncertain),
    may, at the king's pleasure, interpret the law to him,
    but never a Sudra. 21. The kingdom of that monarch,
    who looks on while a Sudra settles the law, will sink
    (low), like a cow in a morass. 22. That kingdom where
    Sudras are very numerous, which is infested by atheists
    and destitute of twice-born (inhabitants), soon entirely
    perishes, aicted by famine and disease. 23. Having oc-
    cupied the seat of justice, having covered his body, and
    having worshipped the guardian deities of the world, let
    him, with a collected mind, begin the trial of causes. 24.
    Knowing what is expedient or inexpedient, what is pure
    justice or injustice, let him examine the causes of suit-
    ors according to the order of the castes (varna). 25. By
    external signs let him discover the internal disposition
    of men, by their voice, their colour, their motions, their
    aspect, their eyes, and their gestures. 26. The internal
    (working of the) mind is perceived through the aspect,
    the motions, the gait, the gestures, the speech, and the
    changes in the eye and of the face. 27. The king shall
    protect the inherited (and other) property of a minor,
    until he has returned (from his teacher's house) or un-
    til he has passed his minority. 28. In like manner care
    must be taken of barren women, of those who have no
    sons, of those whose family is extinct, of wives and wid-
    ows faithful to their lords, and of women aicted with
    diseases. 29. A righteous king must punish like thieves
    those relatives who appropriate the property of such fe-
    males during their lifetime. 30. Property, the owner of
    which has disappeared, the king shall cause to be kept as
    a deposit during three years; within the period of three
    years the owner may claim it, after (that term) the king
    may take it. 31. He who says, 'This belongs to me,'must
    be examined according to the rule; if he accurately de-
    scribes the shape, and the number (of the articles found)
    and so forth, (he is) the owner, (and) ought (to receive)
    that property. 32. But if he does not really know the
    time and the place (where it was) lost, its colour, shape,
    and size, he is worthy of a ne equal (in value) to the
    (object claimed). 33. Now the king, remembering the
    duty of good men, may take one-sixth part of property
    lost and afterwards found, or one-tenth, or at least one-
    twelfth. 34. Property lost and afterwards found (by the
    king's servants) shall remain in the keeping of (special)
    ocials; those whom the king may convict of stealing it,
    he shall cause to be slain by an elephant. 35. From that
    man who shall truly say with respect to treasure-trove,
    'This belongs to me,' the king may take one-sixth or
    one-twelfth part. 36. But he who falsely says (so), shall
    be ned in one-eighth of his property, or, a calculation
    of (the value of) the treasure having been made, in some
    smaller portion (of that). 37. When a learned Brahmana
    has found treasure, deposited in former (times), he may
    take even the whole (of it); for he is master of everything.
    38. When the king nds treasure of old concealed in the
    ground let him give one half to Brahmanas and place the
    (other) half in his treasury. 39. The king obtains one
    half of ancient hoards and metals (found) in the ground,
    by reason of (his giving) protection, (and) because he is
    the lord of the soil. 40. Property stolen by thieves must
    be restored by the king to (men of) all castes (varna);
    a king who uses such (property) for himself incurs the
    guilt of a thief. 41. (A king) who knows the sacred law,
    must inquire into the laws of castes (gati), of districts,
    of guilds, and of families, and (thus) settle the peculiar
    law of each. 42. For men who follow their particular
    occupations and abide by their particular duty, become
    dear to people, though they may live at a distance. 43.
    Neither the king nor any servant of his shall themselves
    cause a lawsuit to be begun, or hush up one that has
    been brought (before them) by (some) other (man). 44.
    As a hunter traces the lair of a (wounded) deer by the
    drops of blood, even so the king shall discover on which
    side the right lies, by inferences (from the facts). 45.
    When engaged in judicial proceedings he must pay full
    attention to the truth, to the object (of the dispute),
    (and) to himself, next to the witnesses, to the place, to
    the time, and to the aspect. 46. What may have been
    practised by the virtuous, by such twice-born men as are
    devoted to the law, that he shall establish as law, if it be
    not opposed to the (customs of) countries, families, and
    castes (gati). 47. When a creditor sues (before the king)
    for the recovery of money from a debtor, let him make
    the debtor pay the sum which the creditor proves (to be
    due). 48. By whatever means a creditor may be able to
    obtain possession of his property, even by those means
    may he force the debtor and make him pay. 49. By moral
    suasion, by suit of law, by artful management, or by the
    customary proceeding, a creditor may recover property
    lent; and fthly, by force. 50. A creditor who himself re-
    covers his property from his debtor, must not be blamed
    by the king for retaking what is his own. 51. But him
    who denies a debt which is proved by good evidence, he
    shall order to pay that debt to the creditor and a small
    ne according to his circumstances. 52. On the denial
    (of a debt) by a debtor who has been required in court
    to pay it, the complainant must call (a witness) who
    was present (when the loan was made), or adduce other
    evidence. 53. (The plainti ) who calls a witness not
    present at the transaction, who retracts his statements,
    or does not perceive that his statements (are) confused
    or contradictory; 54. Or who having stated what he
    means to prove afterwards varies (his case), or who be-
    ing questioned on a fact duly stated by himself does not
    abide by it; 55. Or who converses with the witnesses
    in a place improper for such conversation; or who de-
    clines to answer a question, properly put, or leaves (the
    court); 56. Or who, being ordered to speak, does not an-
    swer, or does not prove what he has alleged; or who does
    not know what is the rst (point), and what the second,
    fails in his suit. 57. Him also who says 'I have witnesses,'
    and, being ordered to produce them, produces them not,
    the judge must on these (same) grounds declare to be
    non-suited. 58. If a plainti does not speak, he may
    be punished corporally or ned according to the law; if
    (a defendant) does not plead within three fortnights, he
    has lost his cause. 59. In the double of that sum which
    (a defendant) falsely denies or on which (the plainti )
    falsely declares, shall those two (men) o ending against
    justice be ned by the king. 60. (A defendant) who,
    being brought (into court) by the creditor, (and) be-
    ing questioned, denies (the debt), shall be convicted (of
    his falsehood) by at least three witnesses (who must de-
    pose) in the presence of the Brahmana (appointed by)
    the king.
    61. I will fully declare what kind of men may be
    made witnesses in suits by creditors, and in what manner
    those (witnesses) must give true (evidence). 62. House-
    holders, men with male issue, and indigenous (inhabi-
    tants of the country, be they) Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, or
    Sudras, are competent, when called by a suitor, to give
    evidence, not any persons whatever (their condition may
    be) except in cases of urgency. 63. Trustworthy men
    of all the (four) castes (varna) may be made witnesses
    in lawsuits, (men) who know (their) whole duty, and
    are free from covetousness; but let him reject those (of
    an) opposite (character). 64. Those must not be made
    (witnesses) who have an interest in the suit, nor famil-
    iar (friends), companions, and enemies (of the parties),
    nor (men) formerly convicted (of perjury), nor (persons)
    su ering under (severe) illness, nor (those) tainted (by
    mortal sin). 65. The king cannot be made a witness,
    nor mechanics and actors, nor a: Srotriya, nor a stu-
    dent of the Veda, nor (an ascetic) who has given up (all)
    connexion (with the world), 66. Nor one wholly depen-
    dent, nor one of bad fame, nor a Dasyu, nor one who
    follows forbidden occupations, nor an aged (man), nor
    an infant, nor one (man alone), nor a man of the low-
    est castes, nor one de cient in organs of sense, 67. Nor
    one extremely grieved, nor one intoxicated, nor a mad-
    man, nor one tormented by hunger or thirst, nor one
    oppressed by fatigue, nor one tormented by desire, nor
    a wrathful man, nor a thief. 68. Women should give
    evidence for women, and for twice-born men twice-born
    men (of the) same (kind), virtuous Sudras for Sudras,
    and men of the lowest castes for the lowest. 69. But any
    person whatsoever, who has personal knowledge (of an
    act committed) in the interior apartments (of a house),
    or in a forest, or of (a crime causing) loss of life, may give
    evidence between the parties. 70. On failure (of quali-
    ed witnesses, evidence) may given (in such cases) by a
    woman, by an infant, by an aged man, by a pupil, by a
    relative, by a slave, or by a hired servant. 71. But the
    (judge) should consider the evidence of infants, aged and
    diseased men, who (are apt to) speak untruly, as untrust-
    worthy, likewise that of men with disordered minds. 72.
    In all cases of violence, of theft and adultery, of defama-
    tion and assault, he must not examine the (competence
    of) witnesses (too strictly). 73. On a con
    ict of the wit-
    nesses the king shall accept (as true) the evidence of the)
    majority; if (the con
    icting parties are) equal in num-
    ber, (that of) those distinguished by good qualities; on
    a di erence between (equally) distinguished (witnesses,
    that of) the best among the twice-born. 74. Evidence in
    accordance with what has actually been seen or heard, is
    admissible; a witness who speaks truth in those (cases),
    neither loses spiritual merit nor wealth. 75. A witness
    who deposes in an assembly of honourable men (Arya)
    anything else but what he has seen or heard, falls after
    death headlong into hell and loses heaven. 76. When a
    man (originally) not appointed to be a witness sees or
    hears anything and is (afterwards) examined regarding
    it, he must declare it (exactly) as he saw or heard it. 77.
    One man who is free from covetousness may be (accepted
    as) witness; but not even many pure women, because
    the understanding of females is apt to waver, nor even
    many other men, who are tainted with sin. 78. What
    witnesses declare quite naturally, that must be received
    on trials; (depositions) di ering from that, which they
    make improperly, are worthless for (the purposes of) jus-
    tice. 79. The witnesses being assembled in the court in
    the presence of the plainti and of the defendant, let
    the judge examine them, kindly exhorting them in the
    following manner: 80. 'What ye know to have been mu-
    tually transacted in this matter between the two men
    before us, declare all that in accordance with the truth;
    for ye are witnesses in this (cause). 81. 'A witness who
    speaks the truth in his evidence, gains (after death) the
    most excellent regions (of bliss) and here (below) unsur-
    passable fame; such testimony is revered by Brahman
    (himself). 82. 'He who gives false evidence is rmly
    bound by Varuna's fetters, helpless during one hundred
    existences; let (men therefore) give true evidence. 83.
    'By truthfulness a witness is puri ed, through truthful-
    ness his merit grows, truth must, therefore, be spoken
    by witnesses of all castes (varna). 84. 'The Soul itself
    is the witness of the Soul, and the Soul is the refuge of
    the Soul; despise not thy own Soul, the supreme witness
    of men. 85. 'The wicked, indeed, say in their hearts,
    "Nobody sees us;" but the gods distinctly see them and
    the male within their own breasts. 86. 'The sky, the
    earth, the waters, (the male in) the heart, the moon,
    the sun, the re, Yama and the wind, the night, the
    two twilights, and justice know the conduct of all cor-
    poreal beings.' 87. The (judge), being puri ed, shall
    ask in the forenoon the twice-born (witnesses) who (also
    have been) puri ed, (and stand) facing the north or the
    east, to give true evidence in the presence of (images
    of) the gods and of Brahmanas. 88. Let him examine
    a Brahmana (beginning with) 'Speak,' a Kshatriya (be-
    ginning with) 'Speak the truth,' a Vaisya (admonishing
    him) by (mentioning) his kine, grain, and gold, a Sudra
    (threatening him) with (the guilt of) every crime that
    causes loss of caste; 89. (Saying), 'Whatever places (of
    torment) are assigned (by the sages) to the slayer of a
    Brahmana, to the murderer of women and children, to
    him who betrays a friend, and to an ungrateful man,
    those shall be thy (portion), if thou speakest falsely. 90.
    '(The reward) of all meritorious deeds which thou, good
    man, hast done since thy birth, shall become the share
    of the dogs, if in thy speech thou departest from the
    truth. 91. 'If thou thinkest, O friend of virtue, with
    respect to thyself, "I am alone," (know that) that sage
    who witnesses all virtuous acts and all crimes, ever re-
    sides in thy heart. 92. 'If thou art not at variance with
    that divine Yama, the son of Vivasvat, who dwells in
    thy heart, thou needest neither visit the Ganges nor the
    (land of the) Kurus. 93. 'Naked and shorn, tormented
    with hunger and thirst, and deprived of sight, shall the
    man who gives false evidence, go with a potsherd to beg
    food at the door of his enemy. 94. 'Headlong, in utter
    darkness shall the sinful man tumble into hell, who being
    interrogated in a judicial inquiry answers one question
    falsely. 95. 'That man who in a court (of justice) gives
    an untrue account of a transaction (or asserts a fact) of
    which he was not an eye-witness, resembles a blind man
    who swallows sh with the bones. 96. 'The gods are
    acquainted with no better man in this world than him,
    of whom his conscious Soul has no distrust, when he
    gives evidence. 97. 'Learn now, O friend, from an enu-
    meration in due order, how many relatives he destroys
    who gives false evidence in several particular cases. 98.
    'He kills ve by false Testimony regarding (small) cattle,
    he kills ten by false testimony regarding kine, he kills a
    hundred by false evidence concerning horses, and a thou-
    sand by false evidence concerning men. 99. 'By speaking
    falsely in a cause regarding gold, he kills the born and
    the unborn; by false evidence concerning land, he kills
    everything; beware, therefore, of false evidence concern-
    ing land. 100. 'They declare (false evidence) concerning
    water, concerning the carnal enjoyment of women, and
    concerning all gems, produced in water, or consisting of
    stones (to be) equally (wicked) as a lie concerning land.
    101. 'Marking well all the evils (which are produced) by
    perjury, declare thou openly everything as (thou hast)
    heard or seen (it).' 102. Brahmanas who tend cattle,
    who trade, who are mechanics, actors (or singers), me-
    nial servants or usurers, the (judge) shall treat like Su-
    dras. 103. In (some) cases a man who, though knowing
    (the facts to be) di erent, gives such (false evidence)
    from a pious motive, does not lose heaven; such (evi-
    dence) they call the speech of the gods. 104. Whenever
    the death of a Sudra, of a Vaisya, of a Kshatriya, or of
    a Brahmana would be (caused) by a declaration of the
    truth, a falsehood may be spoken; for such (falsehood) is
    preferable to the truth. 105. Such (witnesses) must o er
    to Sarasvati oblations of boiled rice (karu) which are sa-
    cred to the goddess of speech, (thus) performing the best
    penance in order to expiate the guilt of that falsehood.
    106. Or such (a witness) may o er according to the
    rule, clari ed butter in the re, reciting the Kushmanda
    texts, or the Rik, sacred to Varuna, 'Untie, O Varuna,
    the uppermost fetter,' or the three verses addressed to
    the Waters. 107. A man who, without being ill, does
    not give evidence in (cases of) ***** and the like within
    three fortnights (after the summons), shall become re-
    sponsible for the whole debt and (pay) a tenth part of
    the whole (as a ne to the king). 108. The witness to
    whom, within seven days after he has given evidence,
    happens (a misfortune through) sickness, a re, or the
    death of a relative, shall be made to pay the debt and
    a ne. 109. If two (parties) dispute about matters for
    which no witnesses are available, and the (judge) is un-
    able to really ascertain the truth, he may cause it to be
    discovered even by an oath. 110. Both by the great sages
    and the gods oaths have been taken for the purpose of
    (deciding doubtful) matters; and Vasishtha even swore
    an oath before king (Sudas), the son of Pigavana. 111.
    Let no wise man swear an oath falsely, even in a tri
    matter; for he who swears an oath falsely is lost in this
    (world) and after death. 112. No crime, causing loss of
    caste, is committed by swearing (falsely) to women, the
    objects of one's desire, at marriages, for the sake of fod-
    der for a cow, or of fuel, and in (order to show) favour to
    a Brahmana. 113. Let the (judge) cause a Brahmana to
    swear by his veracity, a Kshatriya by his chariot or the
    animal he rides on and by his weapons, a Vaisya by his
    kine, grain, and gold, and a Sudra by (imprecating on
    his own head the guilt) of all grievous o ences (pataka).
    114. Or the (judge) may cause the (party) to carry re
    or to dive under water, or severally to touch the heads
    of his wives and children. 115. He whom the blazing re
    burns not, whom the water forces not to come (quickly)
    up, who meets with no speedy misfortune, must be held
    innocent on (the strength of) his oath. 116. For for-
    merly when Vatsa was accused by his younger brother,
    the re, the spy of the world, burned not even a hair
    (of his) by reason of his veracity. 117. Whenever false
    evidence has been given in any suit, let the (judge) re-
    verse the judgment, and whatever has been done must
    be (considered as) undone. 118. Evidence (given) from
    covetousness, distraction, terror, friendship, lust, wrath,
    ignorance, and childishness is declared (to be) invalid.
    119. I will propound in (due) order the particu-
    lar punishments for him who gives false evidence from
    any one of these motives. 120. (He who commits per-
    jury) through covetousness shall be ned one thousand
    (panas), (he who does it) through distraction, in the
    lowest amercement; (if a man does it) through fear, two
    middling amercements shall be paid as a ne, (if he does
    it) through friendship, four times the amount of the low-
    est (amercement). 121. (He who does it) through lust,
    (shall pay) ten times the lowest amercement, but (he
    who does it) through wrath, three times the next (or sec-
    ond amercement); (he who does it) through ignorance,
    two full hundreds, but (he who does it) through childish-
    ness, one hundred (panas). 122. They declare that the
    wise have prescribed these nes for perjury, in order to
    prevent a failure of justice, and in order to restrain injus-
    tice. 123. But a just king shall ne and banish (men of)
    the three (lower) castes (varna) who have given false ev-
    idence, but a Brahmana he shall (only) banish. 124.
    Manu, the son of the Self-existent (Svayambhu), has
    named ten places on which punishment may be (made
    to fall) in the cases of the three (lower) castes (varna);
    but a Brahmana shall depart unhurt (from the country).
    125. (These are) the organ, the belly, the tongue, the
    two hands, and fthly the two feet, the eye, the nose, the
    two ears, likewise the (whole) body. 126. Let the (king),
    having fully ascertained the motive, the time and place
    (of the o ence), and having considered the ability (of the
    criminal to su er) and the (nature of the) crime, cause
    punishment to fall on those who deserve it. 127. Unjust
    punishment destroys reputation among men, and fame
    (after death), and causes even in the next world the loss
    of heaven; let him, therefore, beware of (in
    icting) it.
    128. A king who punishes those who do not deserve it,
    and punishes not those who deserve it, brings great in-
    famy on himself and (after death) sinks into hell. 129.
    Let him punish rst by (gentle) admonition, afterwards
    by (harsh) reproof, thirdly by a ne, after that by cor-
    poral chastisement. 130. But when he cannot restrain
    such (o enders) even by corporal punishment, then let
    him apply to them even all the four (modes cojointly).
    131. Those technical names of (certain quantities
    of) copper, silver, and gold, which are generally used
    on earth for the purpose of business transactions among
    men, I will fully declare. 132. The very small mote
    which is seen when the sun shines through a lattice,
    they declare (to be) the least of (all) quantities and (to
    be called) a trasarenu (a
    oating particle of dust). 133.
    Know (that) eight trasarenus (are equal) in bulk (to) a
    liksha (the egg of a louse), three of those to one grain of
    black mustard (ragasarshapa), and three of the latter to
    a white mustard-seed. 134. Six grains of white mustard
    are one middle-sized barley-corn, and three barley-corns
    one krishnala (raktika, or gunga-berry); ve krishnalas
    are one masha (bean), and sixteen of those one suvarna.
    135. Four suvarnas are one pala, and ten palas one
    dharana; two krishnalas (of silver), weighed together,
    must be considered one mashaka of silver. 136. Sixteen
    of those make a silver dharana, or purana; but know
    (that) a karsha of copper is a karshapana, or pana. 137.
    Know (that) ten dharanas of silver make one satamana;
    four suvarnas must be considered (equal) in weight to a
    nishka. 138. Two hundred and fty panas are declared
    (to be) the rst (or lowest) amercement, ve (hundred)
    are considered as the mean (or middlemost), but one
    thousand as the highest. 139. A debt being admitted as
    due, (the defendant) shall pay ve in the hundred (as a
    ne), if it be denied (and proved) twice as much; that is
    the teaching of Manu. 140. A money-lender may stipu-
    late as an increase of his capital, for the interest, allowed
    by Vasishtha, and take monthly the eightieth part of a
    hundred. 141. Or, remembering the duty of good men,
    he may take two in the hundred (by the month), for he
    who takes two in the hundred becomes not a sinner for
    gain. 142. Just two in the hundred, three, four, and
    ve (and not more), he may take as monthly interest ac-
    cording to the order of the castes (varna). 143. But if a
    bene cial pledge (i.e. one from which pro t accrues, has
    been given), he shall receive no interest on the loan; nor
    can he, after keeping (such) a pledge for a very long time,
    give or sell it. 144. A pledge (to be kept only) must not
    be used by force, (the creditor), so using it, shall give up
    his (whole) interest, or, (if it has been spoilt by use) he
    shall satisfy the (owner) by (paying its) original price;
    else he commits a theft of the pledge. 145. Neither a
    pledge nor a deposit can be lost by lapse of time; they are
    both recoverable, though they have remained long (with
    the bailee). 146. Things used with friendly assent, a
    cow, a camel, a riding-horse, and (a beast) made over
    for breaking in, are never lost (to the owner). 147. (But
    in general) whatever (chattel) an owner sees enjoyed by
    others during ten years, while, though present, he says
    nothing, that (chattel) he shall not recover. 148. If (the
    owner is) neither an idiot nor a minor and if (his chattel)
    is enjoyed (by another) before his eyes, it is lost to him
    by law; the adverse possessor shall retain that property.
    149. A pledge, a boundary, the property of infants, an
    (open) deposit, a sealed deposit, women, the property
    of the king and the wealth of a Srotriya are not lost in
    consequence of (adverse) enjoyment. 150. The fool who
    uses a pledge without the permission of the owner, shall
    remit half of his interest, as a compensation for (such)
    use. 151. In money transactions interest paid at one
    time (not by instalments) shall never exceed the double
    (of the principal); on grain, fruit, wool or hair, (and)
    beasts of burden it must not be more than ve times
    (the original amount). 152. Stipulated interest beyond
    the legal rate, being against (the law), cannot be recov-
    ered; they call that a usurious way (of lending); (the
    lender) is (in no case) entitled to (more than) ve in
    the hundred. 153. Let him not take interest beyond the
    year, nor such as is unapproved, nor compound interest,
    periodical interest, stipulated interest, and corporal in-
    terest. 154. He who, unable to pay a debt (at the xed
    time), wishes to make a new contract, may renew the
    agreement, after paying the interest which is due. 155.
    If he cannot pay the money (due as interest), he may
    insert it in the renewed (agreement); he must pay as
    much interest as may be due. 156. He who has made a
    contract to carry goods by a wheeled carriage for money
    and has agreed to a certain place or time, shall not reap
    that reward, if he does not keep to the place and the
    time (stipulated). 157. Whatever rate men x, who are
    expert in sea-voyages and able to calculate (the pro t)
    according to the place, the time, and the objects (car-
    ried), that (has legal force) in such cases with respect
    to the payment (to be made). 158. The man who be-
    comes a surety in this (world) for the appearance of a
    (debtor), and produces him not, shall pay the debt out
    of his own property. 159. But money due by a surety,
    or idly promised, or lost at play, or due for spirituous
    liquor, or what remains unpaid of a ne and a tax or
    duty, the son (of the party owing it) shall not be obliged
    to pay. 160. This just mentioned rule shall apply to
    the case of a surety for appearance (only); if a surety
    for payment should die, the (judge) may compel even
    his heirs to discharge the debt. 161. On what account
    then is it that after the death of a surety other than
    for payment, whose a airs are fully known, the creditor
    may (in some cases) afterwards demand the debt (of the
    heirs)? 162. If the surety had received money (from
    him for whom he stood bail) and had money enough (to
    pay), then (the heir of him) who received it, shall pay
    (the debt) out of his property; that is the settled rule.
    163. A contract made by a person intoxicated, or in-
    sane, or grievously disordered (by disease and so forth),
    or wholly dependent, by an infant or very aged man, or
    by an unauthorised (party) is invalid. 164. That agree-
    ment which has been made contrary to the law or to the
    settled usage (of the virtuous), can have no legal force,
    though it be established (by proofs). 165. A fraudulent
    mortgage or sale, a fraudulent gift or acceptance, and
    (any transaction) where he detects fraud, the (judge)
    shall declare null and void. 166. If the debtor be dead
    and (the money borrowed) was expended for the family,
    it must be paid by the relatives out of their own estate
    even if they are divided. 167. Should even a person
    wholly dependent make a contract for the behoof of the
    family, the master (of the house), whether (living) in his
    own country or abroad, shall not rescind it. 168. What
    is given by force, what is enjoyed by force, also what has
    been caused to be written by force, and all other trans-
    actions done by force, Manu has declared void. 169.
    Three su er for the sake of others, witnesses, a surety,
    and judges; but four enrich themselves (through others),
    a Brahmana, a money-lender, a merchant, and a king.
    170. No king, however indigent, shall take anything that
    ought not to be taken, nor shall he, however wealthy, de-
    cline taking that which he ought to take, be it ever so
    small. 171. In consequence of his taking what ought
    not to be taken, or of his refusing what ought to be re-
    ceived, a king will be accused of weakness and perish in
    this (world) and after death. 172. By taking his due, by
    preventing the confusion of the castes (varna), and by
    protecting the weak, the power of the king grows, and
    he prospers in this (world) and after death. 173. Let the
    prince, therefore, like Yama, not heeding his own likings
    and dislikings, behave exactly like Yama, suppressing his
    anger and controlling himself. 174. But that evil-minded
    king who in his folly decides causes unjustly, his enemies
    soon subjugate. 175. If, subduing love and hatred, he
    decides the causes according to the law, (the hearts of)
    his subjects turn towards him as the rivers (run) towards
    the ocean. 176. (The debtor) who complains to the king
    that his creditor recovers (the debt) independently (of
    the court), shall be compelled by the king to pay (as a
    ne) one quarter (of the sum) and to his (creditor) the
    money (due). 177. Even by (personal) labour shall the
    debtor make good (what he owes) to his creditor, if he
    be of the same caste or of a lower one; but a (debtor)
    of a higher caste shall pay it gradually (when he earns
    something). 178. According to these rules let the king
    equitably decide between men, who dispute with each
    other the matters, which are proved by witnesses and
    (other) evidence. 179. A sensible man should make a
    deposit (only) with a person of (good) family, of good
    conduct, well acquainted with the law, veracious, having
    many relatives, wealthy, and honourable (arya). 180. In
    whatever manner a person shall deposit anything in the
    hands of another, in the same manner ought the same
    thing to be received back (by the owner); as the de-
    livery (was, so must be) the re-delivery. 181. He who
    restores not his deposit to the depositor at his request,
    may be tried by the judge in the depositor's absence.
    182. On failure of witnesses let the (judge) actually de-
    posit gold with that (defendant) under some pretext or
    other through spies of suitable age and appearance (and
    afterwards demand it back). 183. If the (defendant) re-
    stores it in the manner and shape in which it was bailed,
    there is nothing (of that description) in his hands, for
    which others accuse him. 184. But if he restores not
    that gold, as be ought, to those (spies), then he shall be
    compelled by force to restore both (deposits); that is a
    settled rule of law. 185. An open or a sealed deposit
    must never be returned to a near relative (of the deposi-
    tor during the latter's lifetime); for if (the recipient) dies
    (without delivering them), they are lost, but if he does
    not die, they are not lost. 186. But (a depositary) who
    of his own accord returns them to a near relative of a de-
    ceased (depositor), must not be harassed (about them)
    by the king or by the depositor's relatives. 187. And (in
    doubtful cases) he should try to obtain that object by
    friendly means, without (having recourse to) arti ce, or
    having inquired into (depositary's) conduct, he should
    settle (the matter) with gentle means. 188. Such is
    the rule for obtaining back all those open deposits; in
    the case of a sealed deposit (the depositary) shall incur
    no (censure), unless he has taken out something. 189.
    (A deposit) which has been stolen by thieves or washed
    away by water or burned by re, (the bailee) shall not
    make it good, unless he took part of it (for himself).
    190. Him who appropriates a deposit and him (who
    asks for it) without having made it, (the judge) shall
    try by all (sorts of) means, and by the oaths prescribed
    in the Veda. 191. He who does not return a deposit
    and he who demands what he never bailed shall both
    be punished like thieves, or be compelled to pay a ne
    equal (to the value of the object retained or claimed).
    192. The king should compel him who does not restore
    an open deposit, and in like manner him who retains a
    sealed deposit, to pay a ne equal (to its value). 193.
    That man who by false pretences may possess himself of
    another's property, shall be publicly punished by various
    (modes of) corporal (or capital) chastisement, together
    with his accomplices. 194. If a deposit of a particular
    description or quantity is bailed by anybody in the pres-
    ence of a number (of witnesses), it must be known to be
    of that particular (description and quantity; the deposi-
    tary) who makes a false statement (regarding it) is liable
    to a ne. 195. But if anything is delivered or received
    privately, it must be privately returned; as the bailment
    (was, so should be) the re-delivery. 196. Thus let the
    king decide (causes) concerning a deposit and a friendly
    loan (for use) without showing (undue) rigour to the de-
    positary. 197. If anybody sells the property of another
    man, without being the owner and without the assent
    of the owner, the (judge) shall not admit him who is a
    thief, though he may not consider himself as a thief, as
    a witness (in any case). 198. If the (o ender) is a kins-
    man (of the owner), he shall be ned six hundred panas;
    if he is not a kinsman, nor has any excuse, he shall be
    guilty of theft. 199. A gift or sale, made by anybody else
    but the owner, must be considered as null and void, ac-
    cording to the rule in judicial proceedings. 200. Where
    possession is evident, but no title is perceived, there the
    title (shall be) a proof (of ownership), not possession;
    such is the settled rule. 201. He who obtains a chattel
    in the market before a number (of witnesses), acquires
    that chattel with a clear legal title by purchase. 202. If
    the original (seller) be not producible, (the buyer) being
    exculpated by a public sale, must be dismissed by the
    king without punishment, but (the former owner) who
    lost the chattel shall receive it (back from the buyer).
    203. One commodity mixed with another must not be
    sold (as pure), nor a bad one (as good), nor less (than
    the proper quantity or weight), nor anything that is not
    at hand or that is concealed. 204. If, after one damsel
    has been shown, another be given to the bridegroom, he
    may marry them both for the same price; that Manu
    ordained. 205. He who gives (a damsel in marriage),
    having rst openly declared her blemishes, whether she
    be insane, or aicted with leprosy, or have lost her vir-
    ginity, is not liable to punishment. 206. If an ociating
    priest, chosen to perform a sacri ce, abandons his work,
    a share only (of the fee) in proportion to the work (done)
    shall be given to him by those who work with him. 207.
    But he who abandons his work after the sacri cial fees
    have been given, shall obtain his full share and cause to
    be performed (what remains) by another (priest). 208.
    But if (speci c) fees are ordained for the several parts
    of a rite, shall he (who performs the part) receive them,
    or shall they all share them? 209. The Adhvaryu priest
    shall take the chariot, and the Brahman at the kindling
    of the res (Agnyadhana) a horse, the Hotri priest shall
    also take a horse, and the Udgatri the cart, (used) when
    (the Soma) is purchased. 210. The (four) chief priests
    among all (the sixteen), who are entitled to one half,
    shall receive a moiety (of the fee), the next (four) one
    half of that, the set entitled to a third share, one third,
    and those entitled to a fourth a quarter. 211. By the
    application of these principles the allotment of shares
    must be made among those men who here (below) per-
    form their work conjointly. 212. Should money be given
    (or promised) for a pious purpose by one man to another
    who asks for it, the gift shall be void, if the (money is)
    afterwards not (used) in the manner (stated). 213. But
    if the (recipient) through pride or greed tries to enforce
    (the ful lment of the promise), he shall be compelled by
    the king to pay one suvarna as an expiation for his theft.
    214. Thus the lawful subtraction of a gift has been
    fully explained; I will next propound (the law for) the
    non-payment of wages. 215. A hired (servant or work-
    man) who, without being ill, out of pride fails to perform
    his work according to the agreement, shall be ned eight
    krishnalas and no wages shall be paid to him. 216. But
    (if he is really) ill, (and) after recovery performs (his
    work) according to the original agreement, he shall re-
    ceive his wages even after (the lapse of) a very long time.
    217. But if he, whether sick or well, does not (perform
    or) cause to be performed (by others) his work according
    to his agreement, the wages for that work shall not be
    given to him, even (if it be only) slightly incomplete.
    218. Thus the law for the non-payment of wages has
    been completely stated; I will next explain the law con-
    cerning men who break an agreement. 219. If a man
    belonging to a corporation inhabiting a village or a dis-
    trict, after swearing to an agreement, breaks it through
    avarice, (the king) shall banish him from his realm, 220.
    And having imprisoned such a breaker of an agreement,
    he shall compel him to pay six nishkas, (each of) four
    suvarnas, and one satamana of silver. 221. A righteous
    king shall apply this law of nes in villages and castes
    (gati) to those who break an agreement. 222. If any-
    body in this (world), after buying or selling anything,
    repent (of his bargain), he may return or take (back)
    that chattel within ten days. 223. But after (the lapse
    of) ten days he may neither give nor cause it to be given
    (back); both he who takes it (back) and he who gives
    it (back, except by consent) shall be ned by the king
    six hundred (panas). 224. But the king himself shall
    impose a ne of ninety-six panas on him who gives a
    blemished damsel (to a suitor) without informing (him
    of the blemish). 225. But that man who, out of mal-
    ice, says of a maiden, 'She is not a maiden,' shall be
    ned one hundred (panas), if he cannot prove her blem-
    ish. 226. The nuptial texts are applied solely to virgins,
    (and) nowhere among men to females who have lost their
    virginity, for such (females) are excluded from religious
    ceremonies. 227. The nuptial texts are a certain proof
    (that a maiden has been made a lawful) wife; but the
    learned should know that they (and the marriage cere-
    mony are complete with the seventh step (of the bride
    around the sacred re). 228. If anybody in this (world)
    repent of any completed transaction, (the king) shall
    keep him on the road of rectitude in accordance with
    the rules given above.
    229. I will fully declare in accordance with the true
    law (the rules concerning) the disputes, (arising) from
    the transgressions of owners of cattle and of herdsmen.
    230. During the day the responsibility for the safety (of
    the cattle rests) on the herdsman, during the night on
    the owner, (provided they are) in his house; (if it be) oth-
    erwise, the herdsman will be responsible (for them also
    during the night). 231. A hired herdsman who is paid
    with milk, may milk with the consent of the owner the
    best (cow) out of ten; such shall be his hire if no (other)
    wages (are paid). 232. The herdsman alone shall make
    good (the loss of a beast) strayed, destroyed by worms,
    killed by dogs or (by falling) into a pit, if he did not
    duly exert himself (to prevent it). 233. But for (an an-
    imal) stolen by thieves, though he raised an alarm, the
    herdsman shall not pay, provided he gives notice to his
    master at the proper place and time. 234. If cattle die,
    let him carry to his master their ears, skin, tails, blad-
    ders, tendons, and the yellow concrete bile, and let him
    point out their particular. marks. 235. But if goats or
    sheep are surrounded by wolves and the herdsman does
    not hasten (to their assistance), lie shall be responsible
    for any (animal) which a wolf may attack and kill. 236.
    But if they, kept in (proper) order, graze together in the
    forest, and a wolf, suddenly jumping on one of them,
    kills it, the herdsman shall bear in that case no respon-
    sibility. 237. On all sides of a village a space, one hun-
    dred dhanus or three samya-throws (in breadth), shall
    be reserved (for pasture), and thrice (that space) round
    a town. 238. If the cattle do damage to unfenced crops
    on that (common), the king shall in that case not punish
    the herdsmen. 239. (The owner of the eld) shall make
    there a hedge over which a camel cannot look, and stop
    every gap through which a dog or a boar can thrust his
    head. 240. (If cattle do mischief) in an enclosed eld
    near a highway or near a village, the herdsman shall be
    ned one hundred (panas); (but cattle), unattended by a
    herdsman, (the watchman in the eld) shall drive away.
    241. (For damage) in other elds (each head of) cattle
    shall (pay a ne of one (pana) and a quarter, and in all
    (cases the value of) the crop (destroyed) shall be made
    good to the owner of the eld; that is the settled rule.
    242. But Manu has declared that no ne shall be paid for
    (damage done by) a cow within ten days after her calv-
    ing, by bulls and by cattle sacred to the gods, whether
    they are attended by a herdsman or not. 243. If (the
    crops are destroyed by) the husbandman's (own) fault,
    the ne shall amount to ten times asmuch as (the king's)
    share; but the ne (shall be) only half that amount if
    (the fault lay) with the servants and the farmer had no
    knowledge of it. 244. To these rules a righteous king
    shall keep in (all cases of) transgressions by masters,
    their cattle, and herdsmen. 245. If a dispute has arisen
    between two villages concerning a boundary, the king
    shall settle the limits in the month of Gyaishtha, when
    the landmarks are most distinctly visible. 246. Let him
    mark the boundaries (by) trees, (e.g.) Nyagrodhas, As-
    vatthas, Kimsukas, cotton-trees, Salas, Palmyra palms,
    and trees with milky juice, 247. By clustering shrubs,
    bamboos of di erent kinds, Samis, creepers and raised
    mounds, reeds, thickets of Kubgaka; thus the bound-
    ary will not be forgotten. 248. Tanks, wells, cisterns,
    and fountains should be built where boundaries meet,
    as well as temples, 249. And as he will see that through
    men's ignorance of the boundaries trespasses constantly
    occur in the world, let him cause to be made other hid-
    den marks for boundaries, 250. Stones, bones, cow's
    hair, cha , ashes, potsherds, dry cowdung, bricks, cin-
    ders, pebbles, and sand, 251. And whatever other things
    of a similar kind the earth does not corrode even after
    a long time, those he should cause to be buried where
    one boundary joins (the other). 252. By these signs,
    by long continued possession, and by constantly
    streams of water the king shall ascertain the boundary
    (of the land) of two disputing parties. 253. If there
    be a doubt even on inspection of the marks, the set-
    tlement of a dispute regarding boundaries shall depend
    on witnesses. 254. The witnesses, (giving evidence) re-
    garding a boundary, shall be examined concerning the
    landmarks in the presence of the crowd of the villagers
    and also of the two litigants. 255. As they, being ques-
    tioned, unanimously decide, even so he shall record the
    boundary (in writing), together with their names. 256.
    Let them, putting earth on their heads, wearing chap-
    lets (of red
    owers) and red dresses, being sworn each
    by (the rewards for) his meritorious deeds, settle (the
    boundary) in accordance with the truth. 257. If they
    determine (the boundary) in the manner stated, they
    are guiltless (being) veracious witnesses; but if they de-
    termine it unjustly, they shall be compelled to pay a
    ne of two hundred (panas). 258. On failure of wit-
    nesses (from the two villages, men of) the four neigh-
    bouring villages, who are pure, shall make (as witnesses)
    a -decision concerning the boundary in the presence of
    the king. 259. On failure of neighbours (who are) orig-
    inal inhabitants (of the country and can be) witnesses
    with respect to the boundary, (the king) may hear the
    evidence even of the following inhabitants of the forest.
    260. (Viz.) hunters, fowlers, herdsmen, shermen, root-
    diggers, snake-catchers, gleaners, and other foresters.
    261. As they, being examined, declare the marks for
    the meeting of the boundaries (to be), even so the king
    shall justly cause them to be xed between the two vil-
    lages. 262. The decision concerning the boundary-marks
    of elds, wells, tanks, of gardens and houses depends
    upon (the evidence of) the neighbours. 263. Should the
    neighbours give false evidence, when men dispute about
    a boundary-mark, the king shall make each of them pay
    the middlemost amercement as a ne. 264. He who by
    intimidation possesses himself of a house, a tank, a gar-
    den, or a eld, shall be ned ve hundred (panas); (if
    he trespassed) through ignorance, the ne (shall be) two
    hundred (panas). 265. If the boundary cannot be ascer-
    tained (by any evidence), let a righteous king with (the
    intention of) bene ting them (all), himself assign (his)
    land (to each); that is the settled rule.
    266. Thus the law for deciding boundary (disputes)
    has been fully declared, I will next propound the (man-
    ner of) deciding (cases of) defamation. 267. A Ksha-
    triya, having defamed a Brahmana, shall be ned one
    hundred (panas); a Vaisya one hundred and fty or two
    hundred; a Sudra shall su er corporal punishment. 268.
    A Brahmana shall be ned fty (panas) for defaming
    a Kshatriya; in (the case of) a Vaisya the ne shall be
    twenty- ve (panas); in (the case of) a Sudra twelve. 269.
    For o ences of twice-born men against those of equal
    caste (varna, the ne shall be) also twelve (panas); for
    speeches which ought not to be uttered, that (and every
    ne shall be) double. 270. A once-born man (a Su-
    dra), who insults a twice-born man with gross invective,
    shall have his tongue cut out; for he is of low origin.
    271. If he mentions the names and castes (gati) of the
    (twice-born) with contumely, an iron nail, ten ngers
    long, shall be thrust red-hot into his mouth. 272. If
    he arrogantly teaches Brahmanas their duty, the king
    shall cause hot oil to be poured into his mouth and into
    his ears. 273. He who through arrogance makes false
    statements regarding the learning (of a caste-fellow), his
    country, his caste (gati), or the rites by which his body
    was sancti ed, shall be compelled to pay a ne of two
    hundred (panas). 274. He who even in accordance with
    the true facts (contemptuously) calls another man one-
    eyed, lame, or the like (names), shall be ned at least
    one karshapana. 275. He who defames his mother, his
    father, his wife, his brother, his son, or his teacher, and
    he who gives not the way to his preceptor, shall be com-
    pelled to pay one hundred (panas). 276. (For mutual
    abuse) by a Brahmana and a Kshatriya a ne must be
    imposed by a discerning (king), on the Brahmana the
    lowest amercement, but on the Kshatriya the middle-
    most. 277. A Vaisya and a Sudra must be punished
    exactly in the same manner according to their respec-
    tive castes, but the tongue (of the Sudra) shall not be
    cut out; that is the decision.
    278. Thus the rules for punishments (applicable to
    cases) of defamation have been truly declared; I will next
    propound the decision (of cases) of assault. 279. With
    whatever limb a man of a low caste does hurt to (a man
    of the three) highest (castes), even that limb shall be
    cut o ; that is the teaching of Manu. 280. He who
    raises his hand or a stick, shall have his hand cut o ;
    he who in anger kicks with his foot, shall have his foot
    cut o . 281. A low-caste man who tries to place himself
    on the same seat with a man of a high caste, shall be
    branded on his hip and be banished, or (the king) shall
    cause his buttock to be gashed. 282. If out of arrogance
    he spits (on a superior), the king shall cause both his
    lips to be cut o ; if he urines (on him), the *****; if he
    breaks wind (against him), the anus. 283. If he lays
    hold of the hair (of a superior), let the (king) unhesi-
    tatingly cut o his hands, likewise (if he takes him) by
    the feet, the beard, the neck, or the scrotum. 284. He
    who breaks the skin (of an equal) or fetches blood (from
    him) shall be ned one hundred (panas), he who cuts a
    muscle six nishkas, he who breaks a bone shall be ban-
    ished. 285. According to the usefulness of the several
    (kinds of) trees a ne must be in
    icted for injuring them;
    that is the settled rule. 286. If a blow is struck against
    men or animals in order to (give them) pain, (the judge)
    shall in
    ict a ne in proportion to the amount of pain
    (caused). 287. If a limb is injured, a wound (is caused),
    or blood (
    ows, the assailant) shall be made to pay (to
    the su erer) the expenses of the cure, or the whole (both
    the usual amercement and the expenses of the cure as
    a) ne (to the king). 288. He who damages the goods
    of another, be it intentionally or unintentionally, shall
    give satisfaction to the (owner) and pay to the king a
    ne equal to the (damage). 289. In the case of (damage
    done to) leather, or to utensils of leather, of wood, or of
    clay, the ne (shall be) ve times their value; likewise in
    the case of (damage to)
    owers, roots, and fruit. 290.
    They declare with respect to a carriage, its driver and
    its owner, (that there are) ten cases in which no punish-
    ment (for damage done) can be in
    icted; in other cases a
    ne is prescribed. 291. When the nose-string is snapped,
    when the yoke is broken, when the carriage turns side-
    ways or back, when the axle or a wheel is broken, 292.
    When the leather-thongs, the rope around the neck or
    the bridle are broken, and when (the driver) has loudly
    called out, 'Make way,' Manu has declared (that in all
    these cases) no punishment (shall be in
    icted). 293. But
    if the cart turns o (the road) through the driver's want
    of skill, the owner shall be ned, if damage (is done),
    two hundred (panas). 294. If the driver is skilful (but
    negligent), he alone shall be ned; if the driver is un-
    skilful, the occupants of the carriage (also) shall be each
    ned one hundred (panas). 295. But if he is stopped on
    his way by cattle or by (another) carriage, and he causes
    the death of any living being, a ne shall without doubt
    be imposed. 296. If a man is killed, his guilt will be at
    once the same as (that of) a thief; for large animals such
    as cows, elephants, camels or horses, half of that. 297.
    For injuring small cattle the ne (shall be) two hundred
    (panas); the ne for beautiful wild quadrupeds and birds
    shall amount to fty (panas). 298. For donkeys, sheep,
    and goats the ne shall be ve mashas; but the punish-
    ment for killing a dog or a pig shall be one masha. 299.
    A wife, a son, a slave, a pupil, and a (younger) brother
    of the full blood, who have committed faults, may be
    beaten with a rope or a split bamboo, 300. But on the
    back part of the body (only), never on a noble part; he
    who strikes them otherwise will incur the same guilt as
    a thief.
    301. Thus the whole law of assault (and hurt) has
    been declared completely; I will now explain the rules for
    the decision (in cases) of theft. 302. Let the king exert
    himself to the utmost to punish thieves; for, if he pun-
    ishes thieves, his fame grows and his kingdom prospers.
    303. That king, indeed, is ever worthy of honour who
    ensures the safety (of his subjects); for the sacri cial ses-
    sion (sattra, which he, as it were, performs thereby) ever
    grows in length, the safety (of his subjects representing)
    the sacri cial fee. 304. A king who (duly) protects (his
    subjects) receives from each and all the sixth part of
    their spiritual merit; if he does not protect them, the
    sixth part of their demerit also (will fall on him). 305.
    Whatever (merit a man gains by) reading the Veda, by
    sacri cing, by charitable gifts, (or by) worshipping (Gu-
    rus and gods), the king obtains a sixth part of that in
    consequence of his duly protecting (his kingdom). 306.
    A king who protects the created beings in accordance
    with the sacred law and smites those worthy of corporal
    punishment, daily o ers (as it were) sacri ces at which
    hundred thousands (are given as) fees. 307. A king who
    does not a ord protection, (yet) takes his share in kind,
    his taxes, tolls and duties, daily presents and nes, will
    (after death) soon sink into hell. 308. They declare
    that a king who a ords no protection, (yet) receives the
    sixth part of the produce, takes upon himself all the
    foulness of his whole people. 309. Know that a king
    who heeds not the rules (of the law), who is an atheist,
    and rapacious, who does not protect (his subjects, but)
    devours them, will sink low (after death). 310. Let him
    carefully restrain the wicked by three methods,- by im-
    prisonment by putting them in fetters, and by various
    (kinds of) corporal punishments. 311. For by punishing
    the wicked and by favouring the virtuous, kings are con-
    stantly sancti ed, just as twice-born men by sacri ces.
    312. A king who desires his own welfare must always for-
    give litigants, infants, aged and sick men, who inveigh
    against him. 313. He who, being abused by men in pain,
    pardons (them), will in reward of that (act) be exalted in
    heaven; but he who, (proud) of his kingly state, forgives
    them not, will for that (reason) sink into hell. 314. A
    thief shall, running, approach the king, with
    ying hair,
    confessing that theft (and saying), 'Thus have I done,
    punish me;' 315. (And he must) carry on his shoulder a
    pestle, or a club of Khadira wood, or a spear sharp at
    both ends, or an iron sta . 316. Whether he be pun-
    ished or pardoned, the thief is freed from the (guilt of)
    theft; but the king, if he punishes not, takes upon him-
    self the guilt of the thief. 317. The killer of a learned
    Brahmana throws his guilt on him who eats his food, an
    adulterous wife on her (negligent) husband, a (sinning)
    pupil or sacri cer on (their negligent) teacher (or priest),
    a thief on the king (who pardons him). 318. But men
    who have committed crimes and have been punished by
    the king, go to heaven, being pure like those who per-
    formed meritorious deeds. 319. He who steals the rope
    or the water-pot from a well, or damages a hut where
    water is distributed, shall pay one masha as a ne and
    restore the (article abstracted or damaged) in its (proper
    place). 320. On him who steals more than ten kumbhas
    of grain corporal punishment (shall be in
    icted); in other
    cases he shall be ned eleven times as much, and shall
    pay to the (owner the value of his) property. 321. So
    shall corporal punishment be in
    icted for stealing more
    than a hundred (palas) of articles sold by the weight,
    (i.e.) of gold, silver, and so forth, and of most excellent
    clothes. 322. For (stealing) more than fty (palas) it is
    enacted that the hands (of the o ender) shall be cut o ;
    but in other cases, let him in
    ict a ne of eleven times
    the value. 323. For stealing men of noble family and
    especially women and the most precious gems, (the of-
    fender) deserves corporal (or capital) punishment. 324.
    For stealing large animals, weapons, or medicines, let the
    king x a punishment, after considering the time and the
    purpose (for which they were destined). 325. For (steal-
    ing) cows belonging to Brahmanas, piercing (the nostrils
    of) a barren cow, and for stealing (other) cattle (belong-
    ing to Brahmanas, the o ender) shall forthwith lose half
    his feet. 326. (For stealing) thread, cotton, drugs caus-
    ing fermentation, cowdung, molasses, sour milk, sweet
    milk, butter-milk, water, or grass, 327. Vessels made
    of bamboo or other cane, salt of various kinds, earthen
    (vessels), earth and ashes, 328. Fish, birds, oil, clari ed
    butter, meat, honey, and other things that come from
    beasts, 329. Or other things of a similar kind, spiritu-
    ous liquor, boiled rice, and every kind of cooked food,
    the ne (shall be) twice the value (of the stolen article).
    330. For
    owers, green corn, shrubs, creepers, trees,
    and other unhusked (grain) the ne (shall be) ve kr-
    ishnalas. 331. For husked grain, vegetables, roots, and
    fruit the ne (shall be) one hundred (panas) if there is
    no connexion (between the owner and the thief), fty
    (panas) if such a connexion exists. 332. An o ence (of
    this description), which is committed in the presence (of
    the owner) and with violence, will be robbery; if (it is
    committed) in his absence, it will be theft; likewise if
    (the possession of) anything is denied after it has been
    taken. 333. On that man who may steal (any of) the
    above-mentioned articles, when they are prepared for
    (use), let the king in
    ict the rst (or lowest) amerce-
    ment; likewise on him who may steal (a sacred) re out
    of the room (in which it is kept). 334. With whatever
    limb a thief in any way commits (an o ence) against
    men, even of that (the king) shall deprive him in order
    to prevent (a repetition of the crime). 335. Neither a
    father, nor a teacher, nor a friend, nor a mother, nor a
    wife, nor a son, nor a domestic priest must be left un-
    punished by a king, if they do not keep within their duty.
    336. Where another common man would be ned one
    karshapana, the king shall be ned one thousand; that
    is the settled rule. 337. In (a case of) theft the guilt
    of a Sudra shall be eightfold, that of a Vaisya sixteen-
    fold, that of a Kshatriya two-and-thirtyfold, 338. That
    of a Brahmana sixty-fourfold, or quite a hundredfold, or
    (even) twice four-and-sixtyfold; (each of them) knowing
    the nature of the o ence. 339. (The taking of) roots
    and of fruit from trees, of wood for a (sacri cial) re,
    and of grass for feeding cows, Manu has declared (to be)
    no theft. 340. A Brahmana, seeking to obtain property
    from a man who took what was not given to him, either
    by sacri cing for him or by teaching him, is even like
    a thief. 341. A twice-born man, who is travelling and
    whose provisions are exhausted, shall not be ned, if he
    takes two stalks of sugar-cane or two (esculent) roots
    from the eld of another man. 342. He who ties up
    unbound or sets free tied up (cattle of other men), he
    who takes a slave, a horse, or a carriage will have in-
    curred the guilt of a thief. 343. A king who punishes
    thieves according to these rules, will gain fame in this
    world and after death unsurpassable bliss. 344. A king
    who desires to gain the throne of Indra and imperish-
    able eternal fame, shall not, even for a moment, neglect
    (to punish) the man who commits violence. 345. He
    who commits violence must be considered as the worst
    o ender, (more wicked) than a defamer, than a thief,
    and than he who injures (another) with a sta . 346.
    But that king who pardons the perpetrator of violence
    quickly perishes and incurs hatred. 347. Neither for
    friendship's sake, nor for the sake of great lucre, must a
    king let go perpetrators of violence, who cause terror to
    all creatures. 348. Twice-born men may take up arms
    when (they are) hindered (in the ful lment of their du-
    ties, when destruction (threatens) the twice-born castes
    (varna) in (evil) times, 349. In their own defence, in
    a strife for the fees of ociating priests, and in order
    to protect women and Brahmanas; he who (under such
    circumstances) kills in the cause of right, commits no
    sin. 350. One may slay without hesitation an assassin
    who approaches (with murderous intent), whether (he
    be one's) teacher, a child or an aged man, or a Brah-
    mana deeply versed in the Vedas. 351. By killing an
    assassin the slayer incurs no guilt, whether (he does it)
    publicly or secretly; in that case fury recoils upon fury.
    352. Men who commit adultery with the wives of oth-
    ers, the king shall cause to be marked by punishments
    which cause terror, and afterwards banish. 353. For
    by (adultery) is caused a mixture of the castes (varna)
    among men; thence (follows) sin, which cuts up even the
    roots and causes the destruction of everything. 354. A
    man formerly accused of (such) o ences, who secretly
    converses with another man's wife, shall pay the rst
    (or lowest) amercement. 355. But a man, not before ac-
    cused, who (thus) speaks with (a woman) for some (rea-
    sonable) cause, shall not incur any guilt, since in him
    there is no transgression. 356. He who addresses the
    wife of another man at a Tirtha, outside the village, in a
    forest, or at the con
    uence of rivers, su er (the punish-
    ment for) adulterous acts (samgrahana). 357. O ering
    presents (to a woman), romping (with her), touching her
    ornaments and dress, sitting with her on a bed, all (these
    acts) are considered adulterous acts (samgrahana). 358.
    If one touches a woman in a place (which ought) not
    (to be touched) or allows (oneself to be touched in such
    a spot), all (such acts done) with mutual consent are
    declared (to be) adulterous (samgrahana). 359. A man
    who is not a Brahmana ought to su er death for adultery
    (samgrahana); for the wives of all the four castes even
    must always be carefully guarded. 360. Mendicants,
    bards, men who have performed the initiatory ceremony
    of a Vedic sacri ce, and artisans are not prohibited from
    speaking to married women. 361. Let no man converse
    with the wives of others after he has been forbidden (to
    do so); but he who converses (with them), in spite of
    a prohibition, shall be ned one suvarna. 362. This
    rule does not apply to the wives of actors and singers,
    nor (of) those who live on (the intrigues of) their own
    (wives); for such men send their wives (to others) or,
    concealing themselves, allow them to hold criminal in-
    tercourse. 363. Yet he who secretly converses with such
    women, or with female slaves kept by one (master), and
    with female ascetics, shall be compelled to pay a small
    ne. 364. He who violates an unwilling maiden shall
    instantly su er corporal punishment; but a man who
    enjoys a willing maiden shall not su er corporal punish-
    ment, if (his caste be) the same (as hers). 365. From a
    maiden who makes advances to a (man of) high (caste),
    he shall not take any ne; but her, who courts a (man of)
    low (caste), let him force to live con ned in her house.
    366. A (man of) low (caste) who makes love to a maiden
    (of) the highest (caste) shall su er corporal punishment;
    he who addresses a maiden (on) equal (caste) shall pay
    the nuptial fee, if her father desires it. 367. But if any
    man through insolence forcibly contaminates a maiden,
    two of his ngers shall be instantly cut o , and he shall
    pay a ne of six hundred (panas). 368. A man (of) equal
    (caste) who de les a willing maiden shall not su er the
    amputation of his ngers, but shall pay a ne of two
    hundred (panas) in order to deter him from a repetition
    (of the o ence). 369. A damsel who pollutes (another)
    damsel must be ned two hundred (panas), pay the dou-
    ble of her (nuptial) fee, and receive ten (lashes with a)
    rod. 370. But a woman who pollutes a damsel shall
    instantly have (her head) shaved or two ngers cut o ,
    and be made to ride (through the town) on a donkey.
    371. If a wife, proud of the greatness of her relatives or
    (her own) excellence, violates the duty which she owes
    to her lord, the king shall cause her to be devoured by
    dogs in a place frequented by many. 372. Let him cause
    the male o ender to be burnt on a red-hot iron bed; they
    shall put logs under it, (until) the sinner is burned (to
    death). 373. On a man (once) convicted, who is (again)
    accused within a year, a double ne (must be in
    even thus (must the ne be doubled) for (repeated) in-
    tercourse with a Vratya and a Kandali. 374. A Sudra
    who has intercourse with a woman of a twice-born caste
    (varna), guarded or unguarded, (shall be punished in the
    following manner): if she was unguarded, he loses the
    part (o ending) and all his property; if she was guarded,
    everything (even his life). 375. (For intercourse with a
    guarded Brahmana a Vaisya shall forfeit all his property
    after imprisonment for a year; a Kshatriya shall be ned
    one thousand (panas) and be shaved with the urine (of
    an ass). 376. If a Vaisya or a Kshatriya has connexion
    with an unguarded Brahmana, let him ne the Vaisya
    ve hundred (panas) and the Kshatriya one thousand.
    377. But even these two, if they o end with a Brahmani
    (not only) guarded (but the wife of an eminent man),
    shall be punished like a Sudra or be burnt in a re of dry
    grass. 378. A Brahmana who carnally knows a guarded
    Brahmani against her will, shall be ned one thousand
    (panas); but he shall be made to pay ve hundred, if he
    had connexion with a willing one. 379. Tonsure (of the
    head) is ordained for a Brahmana (instead of) capital
    punishment; but (men of) other castes shall su er cap-
    ital punishment. 380. Let him never slay a Brahmana,
    though he have committed all (possible) crimes; let him
    banish such an (o ender), leaving all his property (to
    him) and (his body) unhurt. 381. No greater crime is
    known on earth than slaying a Brahmana; a king, there-
    fore, must not even conceive in his mind the thought
    of killing a Brahmana. 382. If a Vaisya approaches a
    guarded female of the Kshatriya caste, or a Kshatriya
    a (guarded) Vaisya woman, they both deserve the same
    punishment as in the case of an unguarded Brahmana
    female. 383. A Brahmana shall be compelled to pay a
    ne of one thousand (panas) if he has intercourse with
    guarded (females of) those two (castes); for (o ending
    with) a (guarded) Sudra female a ne of one thousand
    (panas shall be in
    icted) on a Kshatriya or a Vaisya.
    384. For (intercourse with) an unguarded Kshatriya a
    ne of ve hundred (panas shall fall) on a Vaisya; but
    (for the same o ence) a Kshatriya shall be shaved with
    the urine (of a donkey) or (pay) the same ne. 385. A
    Brahmana who approaches unguarded females (of the)
    Kshatriya or Vaisya (castes), or a Sudra female, shall be
    ned ve hundred (panas); but (for intercourse with) a
    female (of the) lowest (castes), one thousand. 386. That
    king in whose town lives no thief, no adulterer, no de-
    famer, no man guilty of violence, and no committer of
    assaults, attains the world of Sakra (Indra). 387. The
    suppression of those ve in his dominions secures to a
    king paramount sovereignty among his peers and fame
    in the world. 388. A sacri cer who forsakes an o-
    ciating priest, and an ociating priest who forsakes a
    sacri cer, (each being) able to perform his work and not
    contaminated (by grievous crimes), must each be ned
    one hundred (panas). 389. Neither a mother, nor a fa-
    ther, nor a wife, nor a son shall be cast o ; he who casts
    them o , unless guilty of a crime causing loss of caste,
    shall be ned six hundred (panas). 390. If twice-born
    men dispute among each other concerning the duty of
    the orders, a king who desires his own welfare should
    not (hastily) decide (what is) the law. 391. Having
    shown them due honor, he should, with (the assistance
    of) Brahmanas, rst soothe them by gentle (speech) and
    afterwards teach them their duty. 392. A Brahmana
    who does not invite his next neighbour and his neigh-
    bour next but one, (though) both (he) worthy (of the
    honour), to a festival at which twenty Brahmanas are
    entertained, is liable to a ne of one masha. 393. A
    Srotriya who does not entertain a virtuous Srotriya at
    auspicious festive rites, shall be made to pay him twice
    (the value of) the meal and a masha of gold (as a ne
    to the king). 394. A blind man, an idiot, (a cripple)
    who moves with the help of a board, a man full sev-
    enty years old, and he who confers bene ts on Srotriyas,
    shall not be compelled by any (king) to pay a tax. 395.
    Let the king always treat kindly a Srotriya, a sick or
    distressed man, an infant and an aged or indigent man,
    a man of high birth, and an honourable man (Arya).
    396. A washerman shall wash (the clothes of his em-
    ployers) gently on a smooth board of Salmaliwood he
    shall not return the clothes (of one person) for those (of
    another), nor allow anybody (but the owner) to wear
    them. 397. A weaver (who has received) ten palas (of
    thread), shall return (cloth weighing) one pala more; he
    who acts di erently shall be compelled to pay a ne of
    twelve (panas). 398. Let the king take one-twentieth of
    that (amount) which men, well acquainted with the set-
    tlement of tolls and duties (and) skilful in (estimating
    the value of) all kinds of merchandise, may x as the
    value for each saleable commodity. 399. Let the king
    con scate the whole property of (a trader) who out of
    greed exports goods of which the king has a monopoly
    or (the export of which is) forbidden. 400. He who
    avoids a custom-house (or a toll), he who buys or sells
    at an improper time, or he who makes a false statement
    in enumerating (his goods), shall be ned eight times
    (the amount of duty) which he tried to evade. 401. Let
    (the king) x (the rates for) the purchase and sale of all
    marketable goods, having (duly) considered whence they
    come, whither they go, how long they have been kept,
    the (probable) pro t and the (probable) outlay. 402.
    Once in ve nights, or at the close of each fortnight, let
    the king publicly settle the prices for the (merchants).
    403. All weights and measuresmust be duly marked, and
    once in six months let him re-examine them. 404. At a
    ferry an (empty) cart shall be made to pay one pana, a
    man's (load) half a pana, an animal and a woman one
    quarter of a (pana), an unloaded man one-half of a quar-
    ter. 405. Carts (laden) with vessels full (of merchandise)
    shall be made to pay toll at a ferry according to the value
    (of the goods), empty vessels and men without luggage
    some tri
    e. 406. For a long passage the boat-hire must
    be proportioned to the places and times; know that this
    (rule refers) to (passages along) the banks of rivers; at
    sea there is no settled (freight). 407. But a woman who
    has been pregnant two months or more, an ascetic, a
    hermit in the forest, and Brahmanas who are students
    of the Veda, shall not be made to pay toll at a ferry.
    408. Whatever may be damaged in a boat by the fault
    of the boatmen, that shall be made good by the boatmen
    collectively, (each paying) his share. 409. This decision
    in suits (brought) by passengers (holds good only) in
    case the boatmen are culpably negligent on the water;
    in the case of (an accident) caused by (the will of) the
    gods, no ne can be (in
    icted on them). 410. (The king)
    should order a Vaisya to trade, to lend money, to culti-
    vate the land, or to tend cattle, and a Sudra to serve the
    twice-born castes 411. (Some wealthy) Brahmana shall
    compassionately support both a Kshatriya and a Vaisya,
    if they are distressed for a livelihood, employing them
    on work (which is suitable for) their (castes). 412. But
    a Brahmana who, because he is powerful, out of greed
    makes initiated (men of the) twice-born (castes) against
    their will do the work of slaves, shall be ned by the
    king six hundred (panas). 413. But a Sudra, whether
    bought or unbought, he may compel to do servile work;
    for he was created by the Self-existent (Svayambhu) to
    be the slave of a Brahmana. 414. A Sudra, though
    emancipated by his master, is not released from servi-
    tude; since that is innate in him, who can set him free
    from it? 415. There are slaves of seven kinds, (viz.) he
    who is made a captive under a standard, he who serves
    for his daily food, he who is born in the house, he who
    is bought and he who is given, he who is inherited from
    ancestors, and he who is enslaved by way of punishment.
    416. A wife, a son, and a slave, these three are declared
    to have no property; the wealth which they earn is (ac-
    quired) for him to whom they belong. 417. A Brahmana
    may con dently seize the goods of (his) Sudra (slave);
    for, as that (slave) can have no property, his master may
    take his possessions. 418. (The king) should carefully
    compel Vaisyas and Sudra to perform the work (pre-
    scribed) for them; for if these two (castes) swerved from
    their duties, they would throw this (whole) world into
    confusion. 419. Let him daily look after the completion
    of his undertakings, his beasts of burden, and carriages,
    (the collection of) his revenues and the disbursements,
    his mines and his treasury. 420. A king who thus brings
    to a conclusion. all the legal business enumerated above,
    and removes all sin, reaches the highest state (of bliss).
    1. I will now propound the eternal laws for a husband
    and his wife who keep to the path of duty, whether they
    be united or separated. 2. Day and night woman must
    be kept in dependence by the males (of) their (fami-
    lies), and, if they attach themselves to sensual enjoy-
    ments, they must be kept under one's control. 3. Her
    father protects (her) in childhood, her husband protects
    (her) in youth, and her sons protect (her) in old age; a
    woman is never t for independence. 4. Reprehensible
    is the father who gives not (his daughter in marriage)
    at the proper time; reprehensible is the husband who
    approaches not (his wife in due season), and reprehen-
    sible is the son who does not protect his mother after
    her husband has died. 5. Women must particularly be
    guarded against evil inclinations, however tri
    ing (they
    may appear); for, if they are not guarded, they will bring
    sorrow on two families. 6. Considering that the highest
    duty of all castes, even weak husbands (must) strive to
    guard their wives. 7. He who carefully guards his wife,
    preserves (the purity of) his o spring, virtuous conduct,
    his family, himself, and his (means of acquiring) merit.
    8. The husband, after conception by his wife, becomes
    an embryo and is born again of her; for that is the wife-
    hood of a wife (gaya), that he is born (gayate) again by
    her. 9. As the male is to whom a wife cleaves, even so
    is the son whom she brings forth; let him therefore care-
    fully guard his wife, in order to keep his o spring pure.
    10. No man can completely guard women by force; but
    they can be guarded by the employment of the (follow-
    ing) expedients: 11. Let the (husband) employ his (wife)
    in the collection and expenditure of his wealth, in keep-
    ing (everything) clean, in (the ful lment of) religious
    duties, in the preparation of his food, and in looking af-
    ter the household utensils. 12. Women, con ned in the
    house under trustworthy and obedient servants, are not
    (well) guarded; but those who of their own accord keep
    guard over themselves, are well guarded. 13. Drink-
    ing (spirituous liquor), associating with wicked people,
    separation from the husband, rambling abroad, sleeping
    (at unseasonable hours), and dwelling in other men's
    houses, are the six causes of the ruin of women. 14.
    Women do not care for beauty, nor is their attention
    xed on age; (thinking), '(It is enough that) he is a man,'
    they give themselves to the handsome and to the ugly.
    15. Through their passion for men, through their muta-
    ble temper, through their natural heartlessness, they be-
    come disloyal towards their husbands, however carefully
    they may be guarded in this (world). 16. Knowing their
    disposition, which the Lord of creatures laid in them at
    the creation, to be such, (every) man should most stren-
    uously exert himself to guard them. 17. (When creating
    them) Manu allotted to women (a love of their) bed, (of
    their) seat and (of) ornament, impure desires, wrath,
    dishonesty, malice, and bad conduct. 18. For women no
    (sacramental) rite (is performed) with sacred texts, thus
    the law is settled; women (who are) destitute of strength
    and destitute of (the knowledge of) Vedic texts, (are as
    impure as) falsehood (itself), that is a xed rule.
    19. And to this e ect many sacred texts are sung
    also in the Vedas, in order to (make) fully known the
    true disposition (of women); hear (now those texts which
    refer to) the expiation of their (sins). 20. 'If my mother,
    going astray and unfaithful, conceived illicit desires, may
    my father keep that seed from me,' that is the scriptural
    text. 21. If a woman thinks in her heart of anything that
    would pain her husband, the (above-mentioned text) is
    declared (to be a means for) completely removing such
    in delity. 22. Whatever be the qualities of the man
    with whom a woman is united according to the law, such
    qualities even she assumes, like a river (united) with the
    ocean. 23. Akshamala, a woman of the lowest birth,
    being united to Vasishtha and Sarangi, (being united)
    to Mandapala, became worthy of honour. 24. These
    and other females of low birth have attained eminence
    in this world by the respective good qualities of their
    25. Thus has been declared the ever pure popular
    usage (which regulates the relations) between husband
    and wife; hear (next) the laws concerning children which
    are the cause of happiness in this world and after death.
    26. Between wives (striyah) who (are destined) to bear
    children, who secure many blessings, who are worthy of
    worship and irradiate (their) dwellings, and between the
    goddesses of fortune (sriyah, who reside) in the houses
    (of men), there is no di erence whatsoever. 27. The
    production of children, the nurture of those born, and
    the daily life of men, (of these matters) woman is vis-
    ibly the cause. 28. O spring, (the due performance
    on religious rites, faithful service, highest conjugal hap-
    piness and heavenly bliss for the ancestors and oneself,
    depend on one's wife alone. 29. She who, controlling her
    thoughts, speech, and acts, violates not her duty towards
    her lord, dwells with him (after death) in heaven, and
    in this world is called by the virtuous a faithful (wife,
    sadhvi) 30. But for disloyalty to her husband a wife is
    censured among men, and (in her next life) she is born
    in the womb of a jackal and tormented by diseases, the
    punishment of her sin.
    31. Listen (now) to the following holy discussion,
    salutary to all men, which the virtuous (of the present
    day) and the ancient great sages have held concerning
    male o spring. 32. They (all) say that the male issue
    (of a woman) belongs to the lord, but with respect to
    the (meaning of the term) lord the revealed texts dif-
    fer; some call the begetter (of the child the lord), others
    declare (that it is) the owner of the soil. 33. By the
    sacred tradition the woman is declared to be the soil,
    the man is declared to be the seed; the production of all
    corporeal beings (takes place) through the union of the
    soil with the seed. 34. In some cases the seed is more
    distinguished, and in some the womb of the female; but
    when both are equal, the o spring is most highly es-
    teemed. 35. On comparing the seed and the receptacle
    (of the seed), the seed is declared to be more important;
    for the o spring of all created beings is marked by the
    characteristics of the seed. 36. Whatever (kind on seed
    is sown in a eld, prepared in due season, (a plant) of
    that same kind, marked with the peculiar qualities of the
    seed, springs up in it. 37. This earth, indeed, is called
    the primeval womb of created beings; but the seed devel-
    ops not in its development any properties of the womb.
    38. In this world seeds of di erent kinds, sown at the
    proper time in the land, even in one eld, come forth
    (each) according to its kind. 39. The rice (called) vrihi
    and (that called) sali, mudga-beans, sesamum, masha-
    beans, barley, leeks, and sugar-cane, (all) spring up ac-
    cording to their seed. 40. That one (plant) should be
    sown and another be produced cannot happen; whatever
    seed is sown, (a plant of) that kind even comes forth.
    41. Never therefore must a prudent well-trained man,
    who knows the Veda and its Angas and desires long life,
    cohabit with another's wife. 42. With respect to this
    (matter), those acquainted with the past recite some
    stanzas, sung by Vayu (the Wind, to show) that seed
    must not be sown by (any) man on that which belongs
    to another. 43. As the arrow, shot by (a hunter) who
    afterwards hits a wounded (deer) in the wound (made
    by another), is shot in vain, even so the seed, sown on
    what belongs to another, is quickly lost (to the sower).
    44. (Sages) who know the past call this earth (prithivi)
    even the wife of Prithu; they declare a eld to belong
    to him who cleared away the timber, and a deer to him
    who ( rst) wounded it. 45. He only is a perfect man
    who consists (of three persons united), his wife, himself,
    and his o spring; thus (says the Veda), and (learned)
    Brahmanas propound this (maxim) likewise, 'The hus-
    band is declared to be one with the wife.' 46. Neither
    by sale nor by repudiation is a wife released from her
    husband; such we know the law to be, which the Lord
    of creatures (Pragapati) made of old. 47. Once is the
    partition (of the inheritance) made, (once is) a maiden
    given in marriage, (and) once does (a man) say,' I will
    give;' each of those three (acts is done) once only. 48.
    As with cows, mares, female camels, slave-girls, bu alo-
    cows, she-goats, and ewes, it is not the begetter (or his
    owner) who obtains the o spring, even thus (it is) with
    the wives of others. 49. Those who, having no property
    in a eld, but possessing seed-corn, sow it in another's
    soil, do indeed not receive the grain of the crop which
    may spring up. 50. If (one man's) bull were to beget a
    hundred calves on another man's cows, they would be-
    long to the owner of the cows; in vain would the bull
    have spent his strength. 51. Thus men who have no
    marital property in women, but sow their seed in the
    soil of others, bene t the owner of the woman; but the
    giver of the seed reaps no advantage. 52. If no agree-
    ment with respect to the crop has been made between
    the owner of the eld and the owner of the seed, the
    bene t clearly belongs to the owner of the eld; the re-
    ceptacle is more important than the seed. 53. But if
    by a special contract (a eld) is made over (to another)
    for sowing, then the owner of the seed and the owner
    of the soil are both considered in this world as sharers
    of the (crop). 54. If seed be carried by water or wind
    into somebody's eld and germinates (there), the (plant
    sprung from that) seed belongs even to the owner of the
    eld, the owner of the seed does not receive the crop.
    55. Know that such is the law concerning the o spring
    of cows, mares, slave-girls, female camels, she-goats, and
    ewes, as well as of females of birds and bu alo-cows.
    56. Thus the comparative importance of the seed
    and of the womb has been declared to you; I will next
    propound the law (applicable) to women in times of mis-
    fortune. 57. The wife of an elder brother is for his
    younger (brother) the wife of a Guru; but the wife of the
    younger is declared (to be) the daughter-in-law of the el-
    der. 58. An elder (brother) who approaches the wife of
    the younger, and a younger (brother who approaches)
    the wife of the elder, except in times of misfortune, both
    become outcasts, even though (they were duly) autho-
    rised. 59. On failure of issue (by her husband) a woman
    who has been authorised, may obtain, (in the) proper
    (manner prescribed), the desired o spring by (cohabita-
    tion with) a brother-in-law or (with some other) Sapinda
    (of the husband). 60. He (who is) appointed to (cohabit
    with) the widow shall (approach her) at night anointed
    with clari ed butter and silent, (and) beget one son, by
    no means a second. 61. Some (sages), versed in the
    law, considering the purpose of the appointment not to
    have been attained by those two (on the birth of the
    rst), think that a second (son) may be lawfully procre-
    ated on (such) women. 62. But when the purpose of
    the appointment to (cohabit with) the widow bas been
    attained in accordance with the law, those two shall be-
    have towards each other like a father and a daughter-
    in-law. 63. If those two (being thus) appointed devi-
    ate from the rule and act from carnal desire, they will
    both become outcasts, (as men) who de le the bed of a
    daughter-in-law or of a Guru. 64. By twice-born men
    a widow must not be appointed to (cohabit with) any
    other (than her husband); for they who appoint (her)
    to another (man), will violate the eternal law. 65. In
    the sacred texts which refer to marriage the appoint-
    ment (of widows) is nowhere mentioned, nor is the re-
    marriage of widows prescribed in the rules concerning
    marriage. 66. This practice which is reprehended by the
    learned of the twice-born castes as t for cattle is said
    (to have occurred) even among men, while Vena ruled.
    67. That chief of royal sages who formerly possessed the
    whole world, caused a confusion of the castes (varna),
    his intellect being destroyed by lust. 68. Since that
    (time) the virtuous censure that (man) who in his folly
    appoints a woman, whose husband died, to (bear) chil-
    dren (to another man). 69. If the (future) husband of
    a maiden dies after troth verbally plighted, her brother-
    in-law shall wed her according to the following rule. 70.
    Having, according to the rule, espoused her (who must
    be) clad in white garments and be intent on purity, he
    shall approach her once in each proper season until is-
    sue (be had). 71. Let no prudent man, after giving his
    daughter to one (man), give her again to another; for
    he who gives (his daughter) whom he had before given,
    incurs (the guilt of) speaking falsely regarding a human
    being. 72. Though (a man) may have accepted a damsel
    in due form, he may abandon (her if she be) blemished,
    diseased, or de
    owered, and (if she have been) given with
    fraud. 73. If anybody gives away a maiden possess-
    ing blemishes without declaring them, (the bridegroom)
    may annul that (contract) with the evil-minded giver.
    74. A man who has business (abroad) may depart af-
    ter securing a maintenance for his wife; for a wife, even
    though virtuous, may be corrupted if she be distressed
    by want of subsistence. 75. If (the husband) went on a
    journey after providing (for her), the wife shall subject
    herself to restraints in her daily life; but if he departed
    without providing (for her), she may subsist by blame-
    less manual work. 76. If the husband went abroad for
    some sacred duty, (she) must wait for him eight years,
    if (he went) to (acquire) learning or fame six (years), if
    (he went) for pleasure three years. 77. For one year let a
    husband bear with a wife who hates him; but after (the
    lapse of) a year let him deprive her of her property and
    cease to cohabit with her. 78. She who shows disrespect
    to (a husband) who is addicted to (some evil) passion,
    is a drunkard, or diseased, shall be deserted for three
    months (and be) deprived of her ornaments and furni-
    ture. 79. But she who shows aversion towards a mad
    or outcast (husband), a eunuch, one destitute of manly
    strength, or one aicted with such diseases as punish
    crimes, shall neither be cast o nor be deprived of her
    property. 80. She who drinks spirituous liquor, is of bad
    conduct, rebellious, diseased, mischievous, or wasteful,
    may at any time be superseded (by another wife). 81.
    A barren wife may be superseded in the eighth year, she
    whose children (all) die in the tenth, she who bears only
    daughters in the eleventh, but she who is quarrelsome
    without delay. 82. But a sick wife who is kind (to her
    husband) and virtuous in her conduct, may be super-
    seded (only) with her own consent and must never be
    disgraced. 83. A wife who, being superseded, in anger
    departs from (her husband's) house, must either be in-
    stantly con ned or cast o in the presence of the family.
    84. But she who, though having been forbidden, drinks
    spirituous liquor even at festivals, or goes to public spec-
    tacles or assemblies, shall be ned six krishnalas. 85. If
    twice-born men wed women of their own and of other
    (lower castes), the seniority, honour, and habitation of
    those (wives) must be (settled) according to the order
    of the castes (varna). 86. Among all (twice-born men)
    the wife of equal caste alone, not a wife of a di erent
    caste by any means, shall personally attend her hus-
    band and assist him in his daily sacred rites. 87. But
    he who foolishly causes that (duty) to be performed by
    another, while his wife of equal caste is alive, is declared
    by the ancients (to be) as (despicable) as a Kandala
    (sprung from the) Brahmana (caste). 88. To a distin-
    guished, handsome suitor (of) equal (caste) should (a fa-
    ther) give his daughter in accordance with the prescribed
    rule, though she have not attained (the proper age). 89.
    (But) the maiden, though marriageable, should rather
    stop in (the father's) house until death, than that he
    should ever give her to a man destitute of good qual-
    ities. 90. Three years let a damsel wait, though she
    be marriageable; but after that time let her choose for
    herself a bridegroom (of) equal (caste and rank). 91. If,
    being not given in marriage, she herself seeks a husband,
    she incurs no guilt, nor (does) he whom she weds. 92.
    A maiden who choses for herself, shall not take with her
    any ornaments, given by her father or her mother, or
    her brothers; if she carries them away, it will be theft.
    93. But he who takes (to wife) a marriageable damsel,
    shall not pay any nuptial fee to her father; for the (lat-
    ter) will lose his dominion over her in consequence of
    his preventing (the legitimate result of the appearance
    of) her enemies. 94. A man, aged thirty years, shall
    marry a maiden of twelve who pleases him, or a man
    of twenty-four a girl eight years of age; if (the perfor-
    mance of) his duties would (otherwise) be impeded, (he
    must marry) sooner. 95. The husband receives his wife
    from the gods, (he does not wed her) according to his
    own will; doing what is agreeable to the gods, he must
    always support her (while she is) faithful. 96. To be
    mothers were women created, and to be fathers men;
    religious rites, therefore, are ordained in the Veda to be
    performed (by the husband) together with the wife. 97.
    If, after the nuptial fee has been paid for a maiden, the
    giver of the fee dies, she shall be given in marriage to his
    brother, in case she consents. 98. Even a Sudra ought
    not to take a nuptial fee, when he gives away his daugh-
    ter; for he who takes a fee sell his daughter, covering (the
    transaction by another name). 99. Neither ancients nor
    moderns who were good men have done such (a deed)
    that, after promising (a daughter) to one man, they have
    her to another; 100. Nor, indeed, have we heard, even
    in former creations, of such (a thing as) the covert sale
    of a daughter for a xed price, called a nuptial fee. 101.
    'Let mutual delity continue until death,' this may be
    considered as the summary of the highest law for hus-
    band and wife. 102. Let man and woman, united in
    marriage, constantly exert themselves, that (they may
    not be) disunited (and) may not violate their mutual
    103. Thus has been declared to you the law for a hus-
    band and his wife, which is intimately connected with
    conjugal happiness, and the manner of raising o spring
    in times of calamity; learn (now the law concerning) the
    division of the inheritance. 104. After the death of the
    father and of the mother, the brothers, being assembled,
    may divide among themselves in equal shares the pater-
    nal (and the maternal) estate; for, they have no power
    (over it) while the parents live. 105. (Or) the eldest
    alone may take the whole paternal estate, the others
    shall live under him just as (they lived) under their fa-
    ther. 106. Immediately on the birth of his rst-born
    a man is (called) the father of a son and is freed from
    the debt to the manes; that (son), therefore, is worthy
    (to receive) the whole estate. 107. That son alone on
    whom he throws his debt and through whom he obtains
    immortality, is begotten for (the ful lment of) the law;
    all the rest they consider the o spring of desire. 108. As
    a father (supports) his sons, so let the eldest support his
    younger brothers, and let them also in accordance with
    the law behave towards their eldest brother as sons (be-
    have towards their father). 109. The eldest (son) makes
    the family prosperous or, on the contrary, brings it to
    ruin; the eldest (is considered) among men most worthy
    of honour, the eldest is not treated with disrespect by
    the virtuous. 110. If the eldest brother behaves as an
    eldest brother (ought to do), he (must be treated) like a
    mother and like a father; but if he behaves in a manner
    unworthy of an eldest brother, he should yet be honoured
    like a kinsman. 111. Either let them thus live together,
    or apart, if (each) desires (to gain) spiritual merit; for
    (by their living) separate (their) merit increases, hence
    separation is meritorious. 112. The additional share
    (deducted) for the eldest shall be one-twentieth (of the
    estate) and the best of all chattels, for the middlemost
    half of that, but for the youngest one-fourth. 113. Both
    the eldest and the youngest shall take (their shares) ac-
    cording to (the rule just) stated (each of) those who
    are between the eldest and the youngest, shall have the
    share (prescribed for the) middlemost. 114. Among the
    goods of every kind the eldest shall take the best (ar-
    ticle), and (even a single chattel) which is particularly
    good, as well as the best of ten (animals). 115. But
    among (brothers) equally skilled in their occupations,
    there is no additional share, (consisting of the best an-
    imal) among ten; some tri
    e only shall be given to the
    eldest as a token of respect. 116. If additional shares
    are thus deducted, one must allot equal shares (out of
    the residue to each); but if no deduction is made, the
    allotment of the shares among them shall be (made) in
    the following manner. 117. Let the eldest son take one
    share in excess, the (brother) born next after him one
    (share) and a half, the younger ones one share each;
    thus the law is settled. 118. But to the maiden (sis-
    ters) the brothers shall severally give (portions) out of
    their shares, each out of his share one-fourth part; those
    who refuse to give (it), will become outcasts. 119. Let
    him never divide (the value of) a single goat or sheep,
    or a (single beast) with uncloven hoofs; it is prescribed
    (that) a single goat or sheep (remaining after an equal
    division, belongs) to the eldest alone. 120. If a younger
    brother begets a son on the wife of the elder, the divi-
    sion must then be made equally; this the law is settled.
    121. The representative (the son begotten on the wife)
    is not invested with the right of the principal (the eldest
    brother to an additional share); the principal (became)
    a father on the procreation (of a son by his younger
    brother); hence one should give a share to the (son be-
    gotten on the wife of the elder brother) according to the
    rule (stated above). 122. If there be a doubt, how the
    division shall be made, in case the younger son is born
    of the elder wife and the elder son of the younger wife,
    123. (Then the son) born of the rst wife shall take as
    his additional share one (most excellent) bull; the next
    best bulls (shall belong) to those (who are) inferior on
    account of their mothers. 124. But the eldest (son, be-
    ing) born of the eldest wife, shall receive fteen cows and
    a bull, the other sons may then take shares according to
    (the seniority of) their mothers; that is a settled rule.
    125. Between sons born of wives equal (in caste) (and)
    without (any other) distinction no seniority in right of
    the mother exists; seniority is declared (to be) accord-
    ing to birth. 126. And with respect to the Subrahmanya
    (texts) also it is recorded that the invocation (of Indra
    shall be made) by the rst-born, of twins likewise, (con-
    ceived at one time) in the wombs (of their mothers) the
    seniority is declared (to depend) on (actual) birth. 127.
    He who has no son may make his daughter in the fol-
    lowing manner an appointed daughter (putrika, saying
    to her husband), 'The (male) child, born of her, shall
    perform my funeral rites.' 128. According to this rule
    Daksha, himself, lord of created beings, formerly made
    (all his female o spring) appointed daughters in order
    to multiply his race. 129. He gave ten to Dharma, thir-
    teen to Kasyapa, twenty-seven to King Soma, honouring
    (them) with an a ectionate heart. 130. A son is even
    (as) oneself, (such) a daughter is equal to a son; how can
    another (heir) take the estate, while such (an appointed
    daughter who is even) oneself, lives? 131. But whatever
    may be the separate property of the mother, that is the
    share of the unmarried daughter alone; and the son of
    an (appointed) daughter shall take the whole estate of
    (his maternal grandfather) who leaves no son. 132. The
    son of an (appointed) daughter, indeed, shall (also) take
    the estate of his (own) father, who leaves no (other) son;
    he shall (then) present two funeral cakes to his own fa-
    ther and to his maternal grandfather. 133. Between a
    son's son and the son of an (appointed) daughter there
    is no di erence, neither with respect to worldly matters
    nor to sacred duties; for their father and mother both
    sprang from the body of the same (man). 134. But
    if, after a daughter has been appointed, a son be born
    (to her father), the division (of the inheritance) must in
    that (case) be equal; for there is no right of primogen-
    iture for a woman. 135. But if an appointed daughter
    by accident dies without (leaving) a son, the husband
    of the appointed daughter may, without hesitation, take
    that estate. 136. Through that son whom (a daugh-
    ter), either not appointed or appointed, may bear to
    (a husband) of equal (caste), his maternal grandfather
    (has) a son's son; he shall present the funeral cake and
    take the estate. 137. Through a son he conquers the
    worlds, through a son's son he obtains immortality, but
    through his son's grandson he gains the world of the sun.
    138. Because a son delivers (trayate) his father from the
    hell called Put, he was therefore called put-tra (a deliv-
    erer from Put) by the Self-existent (Svayambhu) himself.
    139. Between a son's son and the son of a daughter there
    exists in this world no di erence; for even the son of a
    daughter saves him (who has no sons) in the next world,
    like the son's son. 140. Let the son of an appointed
    daughter rst present a funeral cake to his mother, the
    second to her father, the funeral to his father's father.
    141. Of the man who has an adopted (Datrima) son pos-
    sessing all good qualities, that same (son) shall take the
    inheritance, though brought from another family. 142.
    An adopted son shall never take the family (name) and
    the estate of his natural father; the funeral cake follows
    the family (name) and the estate, the funeral o erings
    of him who gives (his son in adoption) cease (as far as
    that son is concerned). 143. The son of a wife, not ap-
    pointed (to have issue by another), and he whom (an
    appointed female, already) the mother of a son, bears to
    her brother-in-law, are both unworthy of a share, (one
    being) the son of an adulterer and (the other) produced
    through (mere) lust. 144. Even the male (child) of a
    female (duly) appointed, not begotten according to the
    rule (given above), is unworthy of the paternal estate; for
    he was procreated by an outcast. 145. A son (legally)
    begotten on such an appointed female shall inherit like a
    legitimate son of the body; for that seed and the produce
    belong, according to the law, to the owner of the soil.
    146. He who takes care of his deceased brother's estate
    and of his widow, shall, after raising up a son for his
    brother, give that property even to that (son). 147. If a
    woman (duly) appointed bears a son to her brother-in-
    law or to another (Sapinda), that (son, if he is) begotten
    through desire, they declare (to be) incapable of inher-
    iting and to be produced in vain.
    148. The rules (given above) must be understood
    (to apply) to a distribution among sons of women of the
    same (caste); hear (now the law) concerning those be-
    gotten by one man on many wives of di erent (castes).
    149. If there be four wives of a Brahmana in the di-
    rect order of the castes, the rule for the division (of the
    estate) among the sons born of them is as follows: 150.
    The (slave) who tills (the eld), the bull kept for impreg-
    nating cows, the vehicle, the ornaments, and the house
    shall be given as an additional portion to the Brahmana
    (son), and one most excellent share. 151. Let the son of
    the Brahmana (wife) take three shares of the (remainder
    of the) estate, the son of the Kshatriya two, the son of
    the Vaisya a share and a half, and the son of the Sudra
    may take one share. 152. Or let him who knows the
    law make ten shares of the whole estate, and justly dis-
    tribute them according to the following rule: 153. The
    Brahmana (son) shall take four shares, son of the Ksha-
    triya (wife) three, the son of the Vaisya shall have two
    parts, the son of the Sudra may take one share. 154.
    Whether (a Brahmana) have sons or have no sons (by
    wives of the twice-born castes), the (heir) must, accord-
    ing to the law, give to the son of a Sudra (wife) no more
    than a tenth (part of his estate). 155. The son of a
    Brahmana, a Kshatriya, and a Vaisya by a Sudra (wife)
    receives no share of the inheritance; whatever his father
    may give to him, that shall be his property. 156. All
    the sons of twice-born men, born of wives of the same
    caste, shall equally divide the estate, after the others
    have given to the eldest an additional share. 157. For
    a Sudra is ordained a wife of his own caste only (and)
    no other; those born of her shall have equal shares, even
    if there be a hundred sons. 158. Among the twelve
    sons of men whom Manu, sprung from the Self-existent
    (Svayambhu), enumerates, six are kinsmen and heirs,
    and six not heirs, (but) kinsmen. 159. The legitimate
    son of the body, the son begotten on a wife, the son
    adopted, the son made, the son secretly born, and the
    son cast o , (are) the six heirs and kinsmen. 160. The
    son of an unmarried damsel, the son received with the
    wife, the son bought, the son begotten on a re-married
    woman, the son self-given, and the son of a Sudra fe-
    male, (are) the six (who are) not heirs, (but) kinsmen.
    161. Whatever result a man obtains who (tries to) cross
    a (sheet of) water in an unsafe boat, even that result
    obtains he who (tries to) pass the gloom (of the next
    world) with (the help of) bad (substitutes for a real)
    son. 162. If the two heirs of one man be a legitimate
    son of his body and a son begotten on his wife, each (of
    the two sons), to the exclusion of the other, shall take
    the estate of his (natural) father. 163. The legitimate
    son of the body alone (shall be) the owner of the pa-
    ternal estate; but, in order to avoid harshness, let him
    allow a maintenance to the rest. 164. But when the
    legitimate son of the body divides the paternal estate,
    he shall give one-sixth or one- fth part of his father's
    property to the son begotten on the wife. 165. The
    legitimate son and the son of the wife (thus) share the
    father's estate; but the other tell become members of the
    family, and inherit according to their order (each later
    named on failure of those named earlier). 166. Him
    whom a man begets on his own wedded wife, let him
    know to be a legitimate son of the body (Aurasa), the
    rst in rank. 167. He who was begotten according to
    the peculiar law (of the Niyoga) on the appointed wife
    of a dead man, of a eunuch, or of one diseased, is called
    a son begotten on a wife (Kshetraga). 168. That (boy)
    equal (by caste) whom his mother or his father a ec-
    tionately give, (con rming the gift) with (a libation of)
    water, in times of distress (to a man) as his son, must
    be considered as an adopted son (Datrima). 169. But
    he is considered a son made (Kritrima) whom (a man)
    makes his son, (he being) equal (by caste), acquainted
    with (the distinctions between) right and wrong, (and)
    endowed with lial virtues. 170. If (a child) be born
    in a man's house and his father be not known, he is
    a son born secretly in the house (Gudhotpanna), and
    shall belong to him of whose wife he was born. 171. He
    whom (a man) receives as his son, (after he has been)
    deserted by his parents or by either of them, is called a
    son cast o (Apaviddha). 172. A son whom a damsel
    secretly bears in the house of her father, one shall name
    the son of an unmarried damsel (Kanina, and declare)
    such o spring of an unmarried girl (to belong) to him
    who weds her (afterwards). 173. If one marries, either
    knowingly or unknowingly, a pregnant (bride), the child
    in her womb belongs to him who weds her, and is called
    (a son) received with the bride (Sahodha). 174. If a
    man buys a (boy), whether equal or unequal (in good
    qualities), from his father and mother for the sake of
    having a son, that (child) is called a (son) bought (Kri-
    taka). 175. If a woman abandoned by her husband, or
    a widow, of her own accord contracts a second marriage
    and bears (a son), he is called the son of a re-married
    woman (Paunarbhava). 176. If she be (still) a virgin,
    or one who returned (to her rst husband) after leav-
    ing him, she is worthy to again perform with her second
    (or rst deserted) husband the (nuptial) ceremony. 177.
    He who, having lost his parents or being abandoned (by
    them) without (just) cause, gives himself to a (man),
    is called a son self-given (Svayamdatta). 178. The son
    whom a Brahmana begets through lust on a Sudra fe-
    male is, (though) alive (parayan), a corpse (sava), and
    hence called a Parasava (a living corpse). 179. A son
    who is (begotten) by a Sudra on a female slave, or on
    the female slave of his slave, may, if permitted (by his
    father), take a share (of the inheritance); thus the law is
    settled. 180. These eleven, the son begotten on the wife
    and the rest as enumerated (above), the wise call sub-
    stitutes for a son, (taken) in order (to prevent) a failure
    of the (funeral) ceremonies. 181. Those sons, who have
    been mentioned in connection with (the legitimate son
    of the body), being begotten by strangers, belong (in
    reality) to him from whose seed they sprang, but not to
    the other (man who took them). 182. If among broth-
    ers, sprung from one (father), one have a son, Manu has
    declared them all to have male o spring through that
    son. 183. If among all the wives of one husband one
    have a son, Manu declares them all (to be) mothers of
    male children through that son. 184. On failure of each
    better (son), each next inferior (one) is worthy of the
    inheritance; but if there be many (of) equal (rank), they
    shall all share the estate. 185. Not brothers, nor fa-
    thers, (but) sons take the paternal estate; but the father
    shall take the inheritance of (a son) who leaves no male
    issue, and his brothers. 186. To three (ancestors) wa-
    ter must be o ered, to three the funeral cake is given,
    the fourth (descendant is) the giver of these (oblations),
    the fth has no connection (with them). 187. Always to
    that (relative within three degrees) who is nearest to the
    (deceased) Sapinda the estate shall belong; afterwards a
    Sakulya shall be (the heir, then) the spiritual teacher
    or the pupil. 188. But on failure of all (heirs) Brah-
    manas (shall) share the estate, (who are) versed the in
    the three Vedas, pure and self-controlled; thus the law
    is not violated. 189. The property of a Brahmana must
    never be taken by the king, that is a settled rule; but
    (the property of men) of other castes the king may take
    on failure of all (heirs). 190. (If the widow) of (a man)
    who died without leaving issue, raises up to him a son
    by a member of the family (Sagotra), she shall deliver
    to that (son) the whole property which belonged to the
    (deceased). 191. But if two (sons), begotten by two
    (di erent men), contend for the property (in the hands)
    of their mother, each shall take, to the exclusion of the
    other, what belonged to his father. 192. But when the
    mother has died, all the uterine brothers and the uter-
    ine sisters shall equally divide the mother's estate. 193.
    Even to the daughters of those (daughters) something
    should be given, as is seemly, out of the estate of their
    maternal grandmother, on the score of a ection. 194.
    What (was given) before the (nuptial) re, what (was
    given) on the bridal procession, what was given in token
    of love, and what was received from her brother, mother,
    or father, that is called the sixfold property of a woman.
    195. (Such property), as well as a gift subsequent and
    what was given (to her) by her a ectionate husband,
    shall go to her o spring, (even) if she dies in the lifetime
    of her husband. 196. It is ordained that the property (of
    a woman married) according to the Brahma, the Daiva,
    the Arsha, the Gandharva, or the Pragapatya rite (shall
    belong) to her husband alone, if she dies without is-
    sue. 197. But it is prescribed that the property which
    may have been given to a (wife) on an Asura marriage
    or (one of the) other (blamable marriages, shall go) to
    her mother and to her father, if she dies without issue.
    198. Whatever property may have been given by her
    father to a wife (who has co-wives of di erent castes),
    that the daughter (of the) Brahmani (wife) shall take, or
    that (daughter's) issue. 199. Women should never make
    a hoard from (the property of) their families which is
    common to many, nor from their own (husbands' partic-
    ular) property without permission. 200. The ornaments
    which may have been worn by women during their hus-
    bands' lifetime, his heirs shall not divide; those who di-
    vide them become outcasts. 201. Eunuchs and outcasts,
    (persons) born blind or deaf, the insane, idiots and the
    dumb, as well as those de cient in any organ (of action
    or sensation), receive no share. 202. But it is just that
    (a man) who knows (the law) should give even to all of
    them food and raiment without stint, according to his
    ability; he who gives it not will become all outcast. 203.
    If the eunuch and the rest should somehow or other de-
    sire to (take) wives, the o spring of such among them
    as have children is worthy of a share. 204. Whatever
    property the eldest (son) acquires (by his own exertion)
    after the father's death, a share of that (shall belong)
    to his younger (brothers), provided they have made a
    due progress in learning. 205. But if all of them, being
    unlearned, acquire property by their labour, the division
    of that shall be equal, (as it is) not property acquired
    by the father; that is a settled rule. 206. Property (ac-
    quired) by learning belongs solely to him to whom (it
    was given), likewise the gift of a friend, a present re-
    ceived on marriage or with the honey-mixture. 207. But
    if one of the brothers, being able (to maintain himself)
    by his own occupation, does not desire (a share of the
    family) property, he may be made separate (by the oth-
    ers) receiving a tri
    e out of his share to live upon. 208.
    What one (brother) may acquire by his labour without
    using the patrimony, that acquisition, (made solely) by
    his own e ort, he shall not share unless by his own will
    (with his brothers). 209. But if a father recovers lost an-
    cestral property, he shall not divide it, unless by his own
    will, with his sons, (for it is) self-acquired (property).
    210. If brothers, (once) divided and living (again) to-
    gether (as coparceners), make a second partition, the
    division shall in that case be equal; in such a case there
    is no right of primogeniture. 211. If the eldest or the
    youngest (brother) is deprived of his share, or if either of
    them dies, his share is not lost (to his immediate heirs).
    212. His uterine brothers, having assembled together,
    shall equally divide it, and those brothers who were re-
    united (with him) and the uterine sisters. 213. An eldest
    brother who through avarice may defraud the younger
    ones, shall no (longer hold the position of) the eldest,
    shall not receive an (eldest son's additional) share, and
    shall be punished by the king. 214. All brothers who ha-
    bitually commit forbidden acts, are unworthy of (a share
    of) the property, and the eldest shall not make (anything
    his) separate property without giving (an equivalent) to
    his younger brothers. 215. If undivided brethren, (liv-
    ing with their father,) together make an exertion (for
    gain), the father shall on no account give to them un-
    equal shares (on a division of the estate). 216. But a
    son, born after partition, shall alone take the property of
    his father, or if any (of the other sons) be reunited with
    the (father), he shall share with them. 217. A mother
    shall obtain the inheritance of a son (who dies) without
    leaving issue, and, if the mother be dead, the paternal
    grandmother shall take the estate. 218. And if, after all
    the debts and assets have been duly distributed accord-
    ing to the rule, any (property) be afterwards discovered,
    one must divide it equally. 219. A dress, a vehicle, or-
    naments, cooked food, water, and female (slaves), prop-
    erty destined for pious uses or sacri ces, and a pasture-
    ground, they declare to be indivisible.
    220. The division (of the property) and the rules for
    allotting (shares) to the (several) sons, those begotten
    on a wife and the rest, in (due) order, have been thus
    declared to you; hear (now) the laws concerning gam-
    bling. 221. Gambling and betting let the king exclude
    from his realm; those two vices cause the destruction
    of the kingdoms of princes. 222. Gambling and bet-
    ting amount to open theft; the king shall always exert
    himself in suppressing both (of them). 223. When inan-
    imate (things) are used (for staking money on them),
    that is called among men gambling (dyuta), when ani-
    mate beings are used (for the same purpose), one must
    know that to be betting (samahvaya). 224. Let the king
    corporally punish all those (persons) who either gamble
    and bet or a ord (an opportunity for it), likewise Sudras
    who assume the distinctive marks of twice-born (men).
    225. Gamblers, dancers and singers, cruel men, men be-
    longing to an heretical sect, those following forbidden
    occupations, and sellers of spirituous liquor, let him in-
    stantly banish from his town. 226. If such (persons who
    are) secret thieves, dwell in the realm of a king, they
    constantly harass his good subjects by their forbidden
    practices. 227. In a former Kalpa this (vice of) gam-
    bling has been seen to cause great enmity; a wise man,
    therefore, should not practise it even for amusement.
    228. On every man who addicts himself to that (vice)
    either secretly or openly, the king may in
    ict punish-
    ment according to his discretion. 229. But a Kshatriya,
    a Vaisya, and a Sudra who are unable to pay a ne, shall
    discharge the debt by labour; a Brahmana shall pay it
    by installments. 230. On women, infants, men of disor-
    dered mind, the poor and the sick, the king shall in
    punishment with a whip, a cane, or a rope and the like.
    231. But those appointed (to administer public) a airs,
    who, baked by the re of wealth, mar the business of
    suitors, the king shall deprive of their property. 232.
    Forgers of royal edicts, those who corrupt his ministers,
    those who slay women, infants, or Brahmanas, and those
    who serve his enemies, the king shall put to death. 233.
    Whenever any (legal transaction) has been completed
    or (a punishment) been in
    icted according to the law,
    he shall sanction it and not annul it. 234. Whatever
    matter his ministers or the judge may settle improperly,
    that the king himself shall (re-) settle and ne (them)
    one thousand (panas). 235. The slayer of a Brahmana,
    (A twice-born man) who drinks (the spirituous liquor
    called) Sura, he who steals (the gold of a Brahmana),
    and he who violates a Guru's bed, must each and all be
    considered as men who committed mortal sins (mahap-
    ataka). 236. On those four even, if they do not perform
    a penance, let him in
    ict corporal punishment and nes
    in accordance with the law. 237. For violating a Guru's
    bed, (the mark of) a female part shall be (impressed on
    the forehead with a hot iron); for drinking (the spiritu-
    ous liquor called) Sura, the sign of a tavern; for stealing
    (the gold of a Brahmana), a dog's foot; for murdering
    a Brahmana, a headless corpse. 238. Excluded from
    all fellowship at meals, excluded from all sacri ces, ex-
    cluded from instruction and from matrimonial alliances,
    abject and excluded from all religious duties, let them
    wander over (this) earth. 239. Such (persons) who have
    been branded with (indelible) marks must be cast o by
    their paternal and maternal relations, and receive nei-
    ther compassion nor a salutation; that is the teaching of
    Manu. 240. But (men of) all castes who perform the
    prescribed penances, must not be branded on the fore-
    head by the king, but shall be made to pay the highest
    amercement. 241. For (such) o ences the middlemost
    amercement shall be in
    icted on a Brahmana, or he may
    be banished from the realm, keeping his money and his
    chattels. 242. But (men of) other (castes), who have
    unintentionally committed such crimes, ought to be de-
    prived of their whole property; if (they committed them)
    intentionally, they shall be banished. 243. A virtuous
    king must not take for himself the property of a man
    guilty of mortal sin; but if he takes it out of greed, he
    is tainted by that guilt (of the o ender). 244. Having
    thrown such a ne into the water, let him o er it to
    Varuna, or let him bestow it on a learned and virtuous
    Brahmana. 245. Varuna is the lord of punishment, for
    he holds the sceptre even over kings; a Brahmana who
    has learnt the whole Veda is the lord of the whole world.
    246. In that (country), where the king avoids taking the
    property of (mortal) sinners, men are born in (due) time
    (and are) long-lived, 247. And the crops of the husband-
    men spring up, each as it was sown, and the children die
    not, and no misshaped (o spring) is born. 248. But
    the king shall in
    ict on a base-born (Sudra), who in-
    tentionally gives pain to Brahmanas, various (kinds of)
    corporal punishment which cause terror. 249. When
    a king punishes an innocent (man), his guilt is consid-
    ered as great as when he sets free a guilty man; but (he
    acquires) merit when he punishes (justly).
    250. Thus the (manner of) deciding suits (falling)
    under the eighteen titles, between two litigant parties,
    has been declared at length. 251. A king who thus duly
    ful ls his duties in accordance with justice, may seek to
    gain countries which he has not yet gained, and shall
    duly protect them when he has gained them. 252. Hav-
    ing duly settled his country, and having built forts in
    accordance with the Institutes, he shall use his utmost
    exertions to remove (those men who are nocuous like)
    thorns. 253. By protecting those who live as (becomes)
    Aryans and by removing the thorns, kings, solely in-
    tent on guarding their subjects, reach heaven. 254. The
    realm of that king who takes his share in kind, though
    he does not punish thieves, (will be) disturbed and he
    (will) lose heaven. 255. But if his kingdom be secure,
    protected by the strength of his arm, it will constantly

    ourish like a (well)- watered tree. 256. Let the king
    who sees (everything) through his spies, discover the
    two sorts of thieves who deprive others of their property,
    both those who (show themselves) openly and those who
    (lie) concealed. 257. Among them, the open rogues (are
    those) who subsist by (cheating in the sale of) various
    marketable commodities, but the concealed rogues are
    burglars, robbers in forests, and so forth. 258. Those
    who take bribes, cheats and rogues, gamblers, those who
    live by teaching (the performance of) auspicious cere-
    monies, sanctimonious hypocrites, and fortune-tellers,
    259. Ocials of high rank and physicians who act im-
    properly, men living by showing their pro ciency in arts,
    and clever harlots, 260. These and the like who show
    themselves openly, as well as others who walk in disguise
    (such as) non-Aryans who wear the marks of Aryans,
    he should know to be thorns (in the side of his people).
    261. Having detected them by means of trustworthy per-
    sons, who, disguising themselves, (pretend) to follow the
    same occupations and by means of spies, wearing vari-
    ous disguises, he must cause them to be instigated (to
    commit o ences), and bring them into his power. 262.
    Then having caused the crimes, which they committed
    by their several actions, to be proclaimed in accordance
    with the facts, the king shall duly punish them accord-
    ing to their strength and their crimes. 263. For the
    wickedness of evil-minded thieves, who secretly prowl
    over this earth, cannot be restrained except by punish-
    ment. 264. Assembly-houses, houses where water is dis-
    tributed or cakes are sold, brothels, taverns and vict-
    ualler's shops, cross-roads, well-known trees, festive as-
    semblies, and play-houses and concert-rooms, 265. Old
    gardens, forests, the shops of artisans, empty dwellings,
    natural and arti cial groves, 266. These and the like
    places the king shall cause to be guarded by companies of
    soldiers, both stationary and patrolling, and by spies, in
    order to keep away thieves. 267. By the means of clever
    reformed thieves, who associate with such (rogues), fol-
    low them and know their various machinations, he must
    detect and destroy them. 268. Under the pretext of
    (o ering them) various dainties, of introducing them to
    Brahmanas, and on the pretence of (showing them) feats
    of strength, the (spies) must make them meet (the of-
    cers of justice). 269. Those among them who do not
    come, and those who suspect the old (thieves employed
    by the king), the king shall attack by force and slay
    together with their friends, blood relations, and connex-
    ions. 270. A just king shall not cause a thief to be put to
    death, (unless taken) with the stolen goods (in his pos-
    session); him who (is taken) with the stolen goods and
    the implements (of burglary), he may, without hesita-
    tion, cause to be slain. 271. All those also who in villages
    give food to thieves or grant them room for (concealing
    their implements), he shall cause to be put to death.
    272. Those who are appointed to guard provinces and
    his vassals who have been ordered (to help), he shall
    speedily punish like thieves, (if they remain) inactive in
    attacks (by robbers). 273. Moreover if (a man), who
    subsists by (the ful lment of) the law, departs from the
    established rule of the law, the (king) shall severely pun-
    ish him by a ne, (because he) violated his duty. 274.
    Those who do not give assistance according to their abil-
    ity when a village is being plundered, a dyke is being
    destroyed, or a highway robbery committed, shall be
    banished with their goods and chattels. 275. On those
    who rob the king's treasury and those who persevere in
    opposing (his commands), he shall in
    ict various kinds
    of capital punishment, likewise on those who conspire
    with his enemies. 276. But the king shall cut o the
    hands of those robbers who, breaking into houses, com-
    mit thefts at night, and cause them to be impaled on
    a pointed stake. 277. On the rst conviction, let him
    cause two ngers of a cut-purse to be amputated; on
    the second, one hand and one foot; on the third, he
    shall su er death. 278. Those who give (to thieves) re,
    food, arms, or shelter, and receivers of stolen goods, the
    ruler shall punish like thieves. 279. Him who breaks
    (the dam of) a tank he shall slay (by drowning him) in
    water or by (some other) (mode of) capital punishment;
    or the o ender may repair the (damage), but shall be
    made to pay the highest amercement. 280. Those who
    break into a (royal) storehouse, an armoury, or a tem-
    ple, and those who steal elephants, horses, or chariots,
    he shall slay without hesitation. 281. But he who shall
    take away the water of a tank, made in ancient times,
    or shall cut o the supply of water, must be made to
    pay the rst (or lowest) amercement. 282. But he who,
    except in a case of extreme necessity, drops lth on the
    king's high-road, shall pay two karshapanas and imme-
    diately remove (that) lth. 283. But a person in ur-
    gent necessity, an aged man, a pregnant woman, or a
    child, shall be reprimanded and clean the (place); that
    is a settled rule. 284. All physicians who treat (their
    patients) wrongly (shall pay) a ne; in the case of ani-
    mals, the rst (or lowest); in the case of human beings,
    the middlemost (amercement). 285. He who destroys
    a bridge, the
    ag (of a temple or royal palace), a pole,
    or images, shall repair the whole (damage) and pay ve
    hundred (panas). 286. For adulterating unadulterated
    commodities, and for breaking gems or for improperly
    boring (them), the ne is the rst (or lowest) amerce-
    ment. 287. But that man who behaves dishonestly to
    honest (customers) or cheats in his prices, shall be ned
    in the rst or in the middlemost amercement. 288. Let
    him place all prisons near a high-road, where the su er-
    ing and dis gured o enders can be seen. 289. Him who
    destroys the wall (of a town), or lls up the ditch (round
    a town), or breaks a (town)- gate, he shall instantly ban-
    ish. 290. For all incantations intended to destroy life,
    for magic rites with roots (practised by persons) not re-
    lated (to him against whom they are directed), and for
    various kinds of sorcery, a ne of two hundred (panas)
    shall be in
    icted. 291. He who sells (for seed-corn that
    which is) not seed-corn, he who takes up seed (already
    sown), and he who destroys a boundary (-mark), shall be
    punished by mutilation. 292. But the king shall cause
    a goldsmith who behaves dishonestly, the most nocuous
    of all the thorns, to be cut to pieces with razors. 293.
    For the theft of agricultural implements, of arms and of
    medicines, let the king award punishment, taking into
    account the time (of the o ence) and the use (of the ob-
    ject). 294. The king and his minister, his capital, his
    realm, his treasury, his army, and his ally are the seven
    constituent parts (of a kingdom); (hence) a kingdom is
    said to have seven limbs (anga). 295. But let him know
    (that) among these seven constituent parts of a king-
    dom (which have been enumerated) in due order, each
    earlier (named) is more important and (its destruction)
    the greater calamity. 296. Yet in a kingdom containing
    seven constituent parts, which is upheld like the triple
    sta (of an ascetic), there is no (single part) more im-
    portant (than the others), by reason of the importance
    of the qualities of each for the others. 297. For each part
    is particularly quali ed for (the accomplishment of) cer-
    tain objects, (and thus) each is declared to be the most
    important for that particular purpose which is e ected
    by its means. 298. By spies, by a (pretended) display
    of energy, and by carrying out (various) undertakings,
    let the king constantly ascertain his own and his en-
    emy's strength; 299. Moreover, all calamities and vices;
    afterwards, when he has fully considered their relative
    importance, let him begin his operations. 300. (Though
    he be) ever so much tired (by repeated failures), let him
    begin his operations again and again; for fortune greatly
    favours the man who (strenuously) exerts himself in his
    undertakings. 301. The various ways in which a king
    behaves (resemble) the Krita, Treta, Dvapara, and Kali
    ages; hence the king is identi ed with the ages (of the
    world). 302. Sleeping he represents the Kali (or iron
    age), waking the Dvapara (or brazen) age, ready to act
    the Treta (or silver age), but moving (actively) the Krita
    (or golden) age. 303. Let the king emulate the energetic
    action of Indra, of the Sun, of the Wind, of Yama, of
    Varuna, of the Moon, of the Fire, and of the Earth. 304.
    As Indra sends copious rain during the four months of
    the rainy season, even so let the king, taking upon him-
    self the oce of Indra, shower bene ts on his kingdom.
    305. As the Sun during eight months (imperceptibly)
    draws up the water with his rays, even so let him grad-
    ually draw his taxes from his kingdom; for that is the
    oce in which he resembles the Sun. 306. As the Wind
    moves (everywhere), entering (in the shape of the vital
    air) all created beings, even so let him penetrate (every-
    where) through his spies; that is the oce in which he
    resembles the Wind. 307. As Yama at the appointed
    time subjects to his rule both friends and foes, even so
    all subjects must be controlled by the king; that is the
    oce in which he resembles Yama. 308. As (a sinner)
    is seen bound with ropes by Varuna, even so let him
    punish the wicked; that is his oce in which he resem-
    bles Varuna. 309. He is a king, taking upon himself
    the oce of the Moon, whose (appearance) his subjects
    (greet with as great joy) as men feel on seeing the full
    moon. 310. (If) he is ardent in wrath against crim-
    inals and endowed with brilliant energy, and destroys
    wicked vassals, then his character is said (to resemble)
    that of Fire. 311. As the Earth supports all created
    beings equally, thus (a king) who supports all his sub-
    jects, (takes upon himself) the oce of the Earth. 312.
    Employing these and other means, the king shall, ever
    untired, restrain thieves both in his own dominions and
    in (those of) others. 313. Let him not, though fallen
    into the deepest distress, provoke Brahmanas to anger;
    for they, when angered, could instantly destroy him to-
    gether with his army and his vehicles. 314. Who could
    escape destruction, when he provokes to anger those
    (men), by whom the re was made to consume all things,
    by whom the (water of the) ocean was made undrinkable,
    and by whom the moon was made to wane and to in-
    crease again? 315. Who could prosper, while he injures
    those (men) who provoked to anger, could create other
    worlds and other guardians of the world, and deprive the
    gods of their divine station? 316. What man, desirous
    of life, would injure them to whose support the (three)
    worlds and the gods ever owe their existence, and whose
    wealth is the Veda? 317. A Brahmana, be he ignorant
    or learned, is a great divinity, just as the re, whether
    carried forth (for the performance of a burnt-oblation)
    or not carried forth, is a great divinity. 318. The bril-
    liant re is not contaminated even in burial-places, and,
    when presented with oblations (of butter) at sacri ces, it
    again increases mightily. 319. Thus, though Brahmanas
    employ themselves in all (sorts of) mean occupations,
    they must be honoured in every way; for (each of) them
    is a very great deity. 320. When the Kshatriyas be-
    come in any way overbearing towards the Brahmanas,
    the Brahmanas themselves shall duly restrain them; for
    the Kshatriyas sprang from the Brahmanas. 321. Fire
    sprang from water, Kshatriyas from Brahmanas, iron
    from stone; the all-penetrating force of those (three)
    has no e ect on that whence they were produced. 322.
    Kshatriyas prosper not without Brahmanas, Brahmanas
    prosper not without Kshatriyas; Brahmanas and Ksha-
    triyas, being closely united, prosper in this (world) and
    in the next. 323. But (a king who feels his end draw-
    ing nigh) shall bestow all his wealth, accumulated from
    nes, on Brahmanas, make over his kingdom to his son,
    and then seek death in battle. 324. Thus conducting
    himself (and) ever intent on (discharging) his royal du-
    ties, a king shall order all his servants (to work) for the
    good of his people. 325. Thus the eternal law concerning
    the duties of a king has been fully declared; know that
    the following rules apply in (due) order to the duties of
    Vaisyas and Sudras. 326. After a Vaisya has received
    the sacraments and has taken a wife, he shall be always
    attentive to the business whereby he may subsist and
    to (that of) tending cattle. 327. For when the Lord
    of creatures (Pragapati) created cattle, he made them
    over to the Vaisya; to the Brahmana, and to the king
    he entrusted all created beings. 328. A Vaisya must
    never (conceive this) wish, I will not keep cattle; and if
    a Vaisya is willing (to keep them), they must never be
    kept by (men of) other (castes). 329. (A Vaisya) must
    know the respective value of gems, of pearls, of coral,
    of metals, of (cloth) made of thread, of perfumes, and
    of condiments. 330. He must be acquainted with the
    (manner of) sowing of seeds, and of the good and bad
    qualities of elds, and he must perfectly know all mea-
    sures and weights. 331. Moreover, the excellence and
    defects of commodities, the advantages and disadvan-
    tages of (di erent) countries, the (probable) pro t and
    loss on merchandise, and the means of properly rearing
    cattle. 332. He must be acquainted with the (proper),
    wages of servants, with the various languages of men,
    with the manner of keeping goods, and (the rules of)
    purchase and sale. 333. Let him exert himself to the
    utmost in order to increase his property in a righteous
    manner, and let him zealously give food to all created
    beings. 334. But to serve Brahmanas (who are) learned
    in the Vedas, householders, and famous (for virtue) is
    the highest duty of a Sudra, which leads to beatitude.
    335. (A Sudra who is) pure, the servant of his betters,
    gentle in his speech, and free from pride, and always
    seeks a refuge with Brahmanas, attains (in his next life)
    a higher caste. 336. The excellent law for the conduct
    of the (four) castes (varna), (when they are) not in dis-
    tress, has been thus promulgated; now hear in order their
    (several duties) in times of distress.
    1. Let the three twice-born castes (varna), discharg-
    ing their (-prescribed-) duties, study (the Veda); but
    among them the Brahmana (alone) shall teach it, not
    the other two; that is an established rule. 2. The Brah-
    mana must know the means of subsistence (prescribed)
    by law for all, instruct the others, and himself live ac-
    cording to (the law) 3. On account of his pre-eminence,
    on account of the superiority of his origin, on account
    of his observance of (particular) restrictive rules, and on
    account of his particular sancti cation the Brahmana
    is the lord of (all) castes (varna). 4. Brahmana, the
    Kshatriya, and the Vaisya castes (varna) are the twice-
    born ones, but the fourth, the Sudra, has one birth only;
    there is no fth (caste). 5. In all castes (varna) those
    (children) only which are begotten in the direct order
    on wedded wives, equal (in caste and married as) vir-
    gins, are to be considered as belonging to the same caste
    (as their fathers) 6. Sons, begotten by twice-born man
    on wives of the next lower castes, they declare to be
    similar (to their fathers, but) blamed on account of the
    fault (inherent) in their mothers. 7. Such is the eter-
    nal law concerning (children) born of wives one degree
    lower (than their husbands); know (that) the following
    rule (is applicable) to those born of women two or three
    degrees lower. 8. From a Brahmana a with the daughter
    of a Vaisya is born (a son) called an Ambashtha, with
    the daughter of a sudra a Nishada, who is also called
    Parasava. 9. From a Kshatriya and the daughter of a
    Sudra springs a being, called Ugra, resembling both a
    Kshatriya and a Sudra, ferocious in his manners, and
    delighting in cruelty. 10. Children of a Brahmana by
    (women of) the three (lower) castes, of a Kshatriya by
    (wives of) the two (lower) castes, and of a Vaisya by (a
    wife of) the one caste (below him) are all six called base-
    born (apasada). 11. From a Kshatriya by the daughter
    of a Brahmana is born (a son called) according to his
    caste (gati) a Suta; from a Vaisya by females of the
    royal and the Brahmana (castes) spring a Magadha and
    a Vaideha. 12. From a Sudra are born an Ayogava, a
    Kshattri, and a Kandala, the lowest of men, by Vaisya,
    Kshatriya, and Brahmana) females, (sons who owe their
    origin to) a confusion of the castes. 13. As an Am-
    bashtha and an Ugra, (begotten) in the direct order on
    (women) one degree lower (than their husbands) are de-
    clared (to be), even so are a Kshattri and a Vaidehaka,
    though they were born in the inverse order of the castes
    (from mothers one degree higher than the fathers). 14.
    Those sons of the twice-born, begotten on wives of the
    next lower castes, who have been enumerated in due
    order, they call by the name Anantaras (belonging to
    the next lower caste), on account of the blemish (in-
    herent) in their mothers. 15. A Brahmana begets on
    the daughter of an Ugra an Avrita, on the daughter of
    an Ambashtha an Abhira, but on a female of the Ayo-
    gava (caste) a Dhigvana. 16. From a Sudra spring in
    the inverse order (by females of the higher castes) three
    base-born (sons, apasada), an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and
    a Kandala, the lowest of men; 17. From a Vaisya are
    born in the inverse order of the castes a Magadha and
    a Vaideha, but from a Kshatriya a Suta only; these are
    three other base-born ones (apasada). 18. The son of a
    Nishada by a Sudra female becomes a Pukkasa by caste
    (gati), but the son of a Sudra by a Nishada female is
    declared to be a Kukkutaka. 19. Moreover, the son of
    by Kshattri by an Ugra female is called a Svapaka; but
    one begotten by aVaidehaka on an Ambashtha female is
    named a Vena. 20. Those (sons) whom the twice-born
    beget on wives of equal caste, but who, not ful lling their
    sacred duties, are excluded from the Savitri, one must
    designate by the appellation Vratyas. 21. But from
    a Vratya (of the) Brahmana (caste) spring the wicked
    Bhriggakantaka, the Avantya, the Vatadhana, the Push-
    padha, and the Saikha. 22. From a Vratya (of the)
    Kshatriya (caste), the Ghalla, the Malla, the Likkhivi,
    the Nata, the Karana, the Khasa, and the Dravida. 23.
    From a Vratya (of the) Vaisya (caste) are born a Sud-
    hanvan, an Akarya, a Karusha, a Viganman, a Maitra,
    and a Satvata. 24. By adultery (committed by per-
    sons) of (di erent) castes, by marriages with women who
    ought not to be married, and by the neglect of the du-
    ties and occupations (prescribed) to each, are produced
    (sons who owe their origin) to a confusion the castes.
    25. I will (now) fully enumerate those (sons) of mixed
    origin, who are born of Anulomas and of Pratilomas,
    and (thus) are mutually connected. 26. The Suta, the
    Vaidehaka, the Kandala, that lowest of mortals, the Ma-
    gadha, he of the Kshattri caste (gati), and the Ayogava,
    27. These six (Pratilomas) beget similar races (varna)
    on women of their own (caste), they (also) produce (the
    like) with females of their mother's caste (gati), and
    with females (of) higher ones. 28. As a (Brahmana)
    begets on (females of) two out of the three (twice-born
    castes a son similar to) himself, (but inferior) on ac-
    count of the lower degree (of the mother), and (one
    equal to himself) on a female of his own race, even so
    is the order in the case of the excluded (races, vahya).
    29. Those (six mentioned above) also beget, the one on
    the females of the other, a great many (kinds of) de-
    spicable (sons), even more sinful than their (fathers),
    and excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya). 30.
    Just as a Sudra begets on a Brahmana female a be-
    ing excluded (from the Aryan community), even so (a
    person himself) excluded pro creates with (females of)
    the four castes (varna, sons) more (worthy of being) ex-
    cluded (than he himself). 31. But men excluded (by the
    Aryans, vahya), who approach females of higher rank,
    beget races (varna) still more worthy to be excluded,
    low men (hina) still lower races, even fteen (in num-
    ber). 32. A Dasyu begets on an Ayogava (woman) a
    Sairandhra, who is skilled in adorning and attending (his
    master), who, (though) not a slave, lives like a slave, (or)
    subsists by snaring (animals). 33. A Vaideha produces
    (with the same) a sweet-voiced Maitreyaka, who, ringing
    a bell at the appearance of dawn, continually. praises
    (great) men. 34. A Nishada begets (on the same) a
    Margava (or) Dasa, who subsists by working as a boat-
    man, (and) whom the inhabitants of Aryavarta call a
    Kaivarta. 35. Those three base-born ones are severally
    begot on Ayogava women, who wear the clothes of the
    dead, are wicked, and eat reprehensible food. 36. From
    a Nishada springs (by a woman of the Vaideha caste)
    a Karavara, who works in leather; and from a Vaide-
    haka (by women of the Karavara and Nishada castes),
    an Andhra and a Meda, who dwell outside the village.
    37. From a Kandala by a Vaideha woman is born a
    Pandusopaka, who deals in cane; from a Nishada (by
    the same) an Ahindika. 38. But from a Kandala by a
    Pukkasa woman is born the sinful Sopaka, who lives by
    the occupations of his sire, and is ever despised by good
    men. 39. A Nishada woman bears to a Kandala a son
    (called) Antyavasayin, employed in burial-grounds, and
    despised even by those excluded (from the Aryan com-
    munity). 40. These races, (which originate) in a confu-
    sion (of the castes and) have been described according
    to their fathers and mothers, may be known by their oc-
    cupations, whether they conceal or openly show them-
    selves. 41. Six sons, begotten (by Aryans) on women of
    equal and the next lower castes (Anantara), have the du-
    ties of twice-born men; but all those born in consequence
    of a violation (of the law) are, as regards their duties,
    equal to Sudras. 42. By the power of austerities and of
    the seed (from which they sprang), these (races) obtain
    here among men more exalted or lower rank in successive
    births. 43. But in consequence of the omission of the
    sacred rites, and of their not consulting Brahmanas, the
    following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this
    world to the condition of Sudras; 44. (Viz.) the Paun-
    drakas, the Kodas, the Dravidas, the Kambogas, the Ya-
    vanas, the Sakas, the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Kinas,
    the Kiratas, and the Daradas. 45. All those tribes in
    this world, which are excluded from (the community of)
    those born from the mouth, the arms, the thighs, and
    the feet (of Brahman), are called Dasyus, whether they
    speak the language of the Mlekkhas (barbarians) or that
    of the Aryans. 46. Those who have been mentioned as
    the base-born (o spring, apasada) of Aryans, or as pro-
    duced in consequence of a violation (of the law, apad-
    hvamsaga), shall subsist by occupations reprehended by
    the twice-born. 47. To Sutas (belongs) the manage-
    ment of horses and of chariots; to Ambashthas, the art
    of healing; to Vaidehakas, the service of women; to Ma-
    gadhas, trade; 48. Killing sh to Nishadas; carpenters'
    work to the Ayogava; to Medas, Andhras, Kunkus, and
    Madgus, the slaughter of wild animals; 49. To Kshattris,
    Ugras, and Pukkasas, catching and killing (animals) liv-
    ing in holes; to Dhigvanas, working in leather; to Venas,
    playing drums. 50. Near well-known trees and burial-
    grounds, on mountains and in groves, let these (tribes)
    dwell, known (by certain marks), and subsisting by their
    peculiar occupations. 51. But the dwellings of Kandalas
    and Svapakas shall be outside the village, they must be
    made Apapatras, and their wealth (shall be) dogs and
    donkeys. 52. Their dress (shall be) the garments of
    the dead, (they shall eat) their food from broken dishes,
    black iron (shall be) their ornaments, and they must
    always wander from place to place. 53. A man who
    ful ls a religious duty, shall not seek intercourse with
    them; their transactions (shall be) among themselves,
    and their marriages with their equals. 54. Their food
    shall be given to them by others (than an Aryan giver)
    in a broken dish; at night they shall not walk about in
    villages and in towns. 55. By day they may go about for
    the purpose of their work, distinguished by marks at the
    king's command, and they shall carry out the corpses
    (of persons) who have no relatives; that is a settled rule.
    56. By the king's order they shall always execute the
    criminals, in accordance with the law, and they shall
    take for themselves the clothes, the beds, and the orna-
    ments of (such) criminals. 57. A man of impure origin,
    who belongs not to any caste, (varna, but whose charac-
    ter is) not known, who, (though) not an Aryan, has the
    appearance of an Aryan, one may discover by his acts.
    58. Behaviour unworthy of an Aryan, harshness, cruelty,
    and habitual neglect of the prescribed duties betray in
    this world a man of impure origin. 59. A base-born man
    either resembles in character his father, or his mother, or
    both; he can never conceal his real nature. 60. Even if a
    man, born in a great family, sprang from criminal inter-
    course, he will certainly possess the faults of his (father),
    be they small or great. 61. But that kingdom in which
    such bastards, sullying (the purity of) the castes, are
    born, perishes quickly together with its inhabitants. 62.
    Dying, without the expectation of a reward, for the sake
    of Brahmanas and of cows, or in the defence of women
    and children, secures beatitude to those excluded (from
    the Aryan community, vahya.) 63. Abstention from in-
    juring (creatures), veracity, abstention from unlawfully
    appropriating (the goods of others), purity, and control
    of the organs, Manu has declared to be the summary of
    the law for the four castes. 64. If (a female of the caste),
    sprung from a Brahmana and a Sudra female, bear (chil-
    dren) to one of the highest caste, the inferior (tribe) at-
    tains the highest caste within the seventh generation.
    65. (Thus) a Sudra attains the rank of a Brahmana,
    and (in a similar manner) a Brahmana sinks to the level
    of a Sudra; but know that it is the same with the o -
    spring of a Kshatriya or of a Vaisya. 66. If (a doubt)
    should arise, with whom the preeminence (is, whether)
    with him whom an Aryan by chance begot on a non-
    Aryan female, or (with the son) of a Brahmana woman
    by a non-Aryan, 67. The decision is as follows: 'He who
    was begotten by an Aryan on a non-Aryan female, may
    become (like to) an Aryan by his virtues; he whom an
    Aryan (mother) bore to a non-Aryan father (is and re-
    mains) unlike to an Aryan.' 68. The law prescribes that
    neither of the two shall receive the sacraments, the rst
    (being excluded) on account of the lowness of his origin,
    the second (because the union of his parents was) against
    the order of the castes. 69. As good seed, springing up
    in good soil, turns out perfectly well, even so the son of
    an Aryan by an Aryan woman is worthy of all the sacra-
    ments. 70. Some sages declare the seed to be more im-
    portant, and others the eld; again others (assert that)
    the seed and the eld (are equally important); but the
    legal decision on this point is as follows: 71. Seed, sown
    on barren ground, perishes in it; a (fertile) eld also,
    in which no (good) seed (is sown), will remain barren.
    72. As through the power of the seed (sons) born of
    animals became sages who are honoured and praised,
    hence the seed is declared to be more important. 73.
    Having considered (the case of) a non-Aryan who acts
    like an Aryan, and (that of) an Aryan who acts like a
    non-Aryan, the creator declared, 'Those two are neither
    equal nor unequal.' 74. Brahmanas who are intent on
    the means (of gaining union with) Brahman and rm in
    (discharging) their duties, shall live by duly performing
    the following six acts, (which are enumerated) in their
    (proper) order. 75. Teaching, studying, sacri cing for
    himself, sacri cing for others, making gifts and receiving
    them are the six acts (prescribed) for a Brahmana. 76.
    But among the six acts (ordained) for him three are his
    means of subsistence, (viz.) sacri cing for others, teach-
    ing, and accepting gifts from pure men. 77. (Passing)
    from the Brahmana to the Kshatriya, three acts (incum-
    bent on the former) are forbidden, (viz.) teaching, sac-
    ri cing for others, and, thirdly, the acceptance of gifts.
    78. The same are likewise forbidden to a Vaisya, that
    is a settled rule; for Manu, the lord of creatures (Pra-
    gapati), has not prescribed them for (men of) those two
    (castes). 79. To carry arms for striking and for throwing
    (is prescribed) for Kshatriyas as a means of subsistence;
    to trade, (to rear) cattle, and agriculture for Vaisyas;
    but their duties are liberality, the study of the Veda,
    and the performance of sacri ces. 80. Among the sev-
    eral occupations the most commendable are, teaching
    the Veda for a Brahmana, protecting (the people) for
    a Kshatriya, and trade for a Vaisya. 81. But a Brah-
    mana, unable to subsist by his peculiar occupations just
    mentioned, may live according to the law applicable to
    Kshatriyas; for the latter is next to him in rank. 82.
    If it be asked, 'How shall it be, if he cannot maintain
    himself by either (of these occupations?' the answer is),
    he may adopt a Vaisya's mode of life, employing himself
    in agriculture and rearing cattle. 83. But a Brahmana,
    or a Kshatriya, living by a Vaisya's mode of subsistence,
    shall carefully avoid (the pursuit of) agriculture, (which
    causes) injury to many beings and depends on others.
    84. (Some) declare that agriculture is something excel-
    lent, (but) that means of subsistence is blamed by the
    virtuous; (for) the wooden (implement) with iron point
    injuries the earth and (the beings) living in the earth.
    85. But he who, through a want of means of subsis-
    tence, gives up the strictness with respect to his duties,
    may sell, in order to increase his wealth, the commodi-
    ties sold by Vaisyas, making (however) the (following)
    exceptions. 86. He must avoid (selling) condiments of
    all sorts, cooked food and sesamum, stones, salt, cat-
    tle, and human (beings), 87. All dyed cloth, as well
    as cloth made of hemp, or
    ax, or wool, even though
    they be not dyed, fruit, roots, and (medical) herbs 88.
    Water, weapons, poison, meat, Soma, and perfumes of
    all kinds, fresh milk, honey, sour milk, clari ed butter,
    oil, wax, sugar, Kusa-grass; 89. All beasts of the forest,
    animals with fangs or tusks, birds, spirituous liquor, in-
    digo, lac, and all one-hoofed beasts. 90. But he who
    subsists by agriculture, may at pleasure sell unmixed
    sesamum grains for sacred purposes, provided he him-
    self has grown them and has not kept them long. 91.
    If he applies sesamum to any other purpose but food,
    anointing, and charitable gifts, he will be born (again)
    as a worm and, together with his ancestors, be plunged
    into the ordure of dogs. 92. By (selling)
    esh, salt, and
    lac a Brahmana at once becomes an outcast; by sell-
    ing milk he becomes (equal to) a Sudra in three days.
    93. But by willingly selling in this world other (for-
    bidden) commodities, a Brahmana assumes after seven
    nights the character of a Vaisya. 94. Condiments may be
    bartered for condiments, but by no means salt for (other)
    condiments; cooked food (may be exchanged) for (other
    kinds of) cooked food, and sesamum seeds for grain in
    equal quantities. 95. A Kshatriya who has fallen into
    distress, may subsist by all these (means); but he must
    never arrogantly adopt the mode of life (prescribed for
    his) betters. 96. A man of low caste who through cov-
    etousness lives by the occupations of a higher one, the
    king shall deprive of his property and banish. 97. It is
    better (to discharge) one's own (appointed) duty incom-
    pletely than to perform completely that of another; for
    he who lives according to the law of another (caste) is
    instantly excluded from his own. 98. A Vaisya who is
    unable to subsist by his own duties, may even maintain
    himself by a Sudra's mode of life, avoiding (however)
    acts forbidden (to him), and he should give it up, when
    he is able (to do so). 99. But a Sudra, being unable to
    nd service with the twice-born and threatened with the
    loss of his sons and wife (through hunger), may maintain
    himself by handicrafts. 100. (Let him follow) those me-
    chanical occupations and those various practical arts by
    following which the twice-born are (best) served. 101. A
    Brahmana who is distressed through a want of means of
    subsistence and pines (with hunger), (but) unwilling to
    adopt a Vaisya's mode of life and resolved to follow his
    own (prescribed) path, may act in the following man-
    ner. 102. A Brahmana who has fallen into distress may
    accept (gifts) from anybody; for according to the law
    it is not possible (to assert) that anything pure can be
    sullied. 103. By teaching, by sacri cing for, and by ac-
    cepting gifts from despicable (men) Brahmanas (in dis-
    tress) commit not sin; for they (are as pure) as re and
    water. 104. He who, when in danger of losing his life,
    accepts food from any person whatsoever, is no more
    tainted by sin than the sky by mud. 105. Agigarta,
    who su ered hunger, approached in order to slay (his
    own) son, and was not tainted by sin, since he (only)
    sought a remedy against famishing. 106. Vamadeva,
    who well knew right and wrong, did not sully himself
    when, tormented (by hunger), he desired to eat the
    of a dog in order to save his life. 107. Bharadvaga, a
    performer of great austerities, accepted many cows from
    the carpenter Bribu, when he was starving together with
    his sons in a lonely forest. 108. Visvamitra, who well
    knew what is right or wrong, approached, when he was
    tormented by hunger, (to eat) the haunch of a dog, re-
    ceiving it the hands of a Kandala. 109. On (comparing)
    the acceptance (of gifts from low men), sacri cing (for
    them), and teaching (them), the acceptance of gifts is
    the meanest (of those acts) and (most) reprehensible for
    a Brahmana (on account of its results) in the next life.
    110. (For) assisting in sacri ces and teaching are (two
    acts) always performed for men who have received the
    sacraments; but the acceptance of gifts takes place even
    in (case the giver is) a Sudra of the lowest class. 111.
    The guilt incurred by o ering sacri ces for teaching (un-
    worthy men) is removed by muttering (sacred texts) and
    by burnt o erings, but that incurred by accepting gifts
    (from them) by throwing (the gifts) away and by aus-
    terities. 112. A Brahmana who is unable to maintain
    himself, should (rather) glean ears or grains from (the
    eld of) any (man); gleaning ears is better than accept-
    ing gifts, picking up single grains is declared to be still
    more laudable. 113. If Brahmanas, who are Snatakas,
    are pining with hunger, or in want of (utensils made
    of) common metals, or of other property, they may ask
    the king for them; if he is not disposed to be liberal,
    he must be left. 114. (The acceptance on an untilled
    eld is less blamable than (that of) a tilled one; (with
    respect to) cows, goats, sheep, gold, grain, and cooked
    food, (the acceptance of) each earlier-named (article is
    less blamable than of the following ones). 115. There are
    seven lawful modes of acquiring property, (viz.) inheri-
    tance, nding or friendly donation, purchase, conquest,
    lending at interest, the performance of work, and the
    acceptance of gifts from virtuous men. 116. Learning,
    mechanical arts, work for wages, service, rearing cat-
    tle, trac, agriculture, contentment (with little), alms,
    and receiving interest on money, are the ten modes of
    subsistence (permitted to all men in times of distress).
    117. Neither a Brahmana, nor a Kshatriya must lend
    (money at) interest; but at his pleasure (either of them)
    may, in times of distress when he requires money) for
    sacred purposes, lend to a very sinful man at a small
    interest. 118. A Kshatriya (king) who, in times of dis-
    tress, takes even the fourth part (of the crops), is free
    from guilt, if he protects his subjects to the best of his
    ability. 119. His peculiar duty is conquest, and he must
    not turn back in danger; having protected the Vaisyas
    by his weapons, he may cause the legal tax to be col-
    lected; 120. (Viz.) from Vaisyas one-eighth as the tax
    on grain, one-twentieth (on the pro ts on gold and cat-
    tle), which amount at least to one Karshapana; Sudras,
    artisans, and mechanics (shall) bene t (the king) by (do-
    ing) work (for him). 121. If a Sudra, (unable to subsist
    by serving Brahmanas,) seeks a livelihood, he may serve
    Kshatriyas, or he may also seek to maintain himself by
    attending on a wealthy Vaisya. 122. But let a (Sudra)
    serve Brahmanas, either for the sake of heaven, or with
    a view to both (this life and the next); for he who is
    called the servant of a Brahmana thereby gains all his
    ends. 123. The service of Brahmanas alone is declared
    (to be) an excellent occupation for a Sudra; for whatever
    else besides this he may perform will bear him no fruit.
    124. They must allot to him out of their own family (-
    property) a suitable maintenance, after considering his
    ability, his industry, and the number of those whom he
    is bound to support. 125. The remnants of their food
    must be given to him, as well as their old clothes, the
    refuse of their grain, and their old household furniture.
    126. A Sudra cannot commit an o ence, causing loss
    of caste (pataka), and he is not worthy to receive the
    sacraments; he has no right to (ful l) the sacred law (of
    the Aryans, yet) there is no prohibition against (his ful-
    lling certain portions of) the law. 127. (Sudras) who
    are desirous to gain merit, and know (their) duty, com-
    mit no sin, but gain praise, if they imitate the practice
    of virtuous men without reciting sacred texts. 128. The
    more a (Sudra), keeping himself free from envy, imitates
    the behaviour of the virtuous, the more he gains, with-
    out being censured, (exaltation in) this world and the
    next. 129. No collection of wealth must be made by
    a Sudra, even though he be able (to do it); for a Sudra
    who has acquired wealth, gives pain to Brahmanas. 130.
    The duties of the four castes (varna) in times of distress
    have thus been declared, and if they perform them well,
    they will reach the most blessed state. 131. Thus all the
    legal rules for the four castes have been proclaimed; I
    next will promulgate the auspicious rules for penances.
    1. Him who wishes (to marry for the sake of hav-
    ing) o spring, him who wishes to perform a sacri ce, a
    traveller, him who has given away all his property, him
    who begs for the sake of his teacher, his father, or his
    mother, a student of the Veda, and a sick man, 2. These
    nine Brahmanas one should consider as Snatakas, beg-
    ging in order to ful l the sacred law; to such poor men
    gifts must be given in proportion to their learning. 3.
    To these most excellent among the twice-born, food and
    presents (of money) must be given; it is declared that
    food must be given to others outside the sacri cial enclo-
    sure. 4. But a king shall bestow, as is proper, jewels of
    all sorts, and presents for the sake of sacri ces on Brah-
    manas learned in the Vedas. 5. If a man who has a wife
    weds a second wife, having begged money (to defray the
    marriage expenses, he obtains) no advantage but sen-
    sual enjoyment; but the issue (of his second marriage
    belongs) to the giver of the money. 6. One should give,
    according to one's ability, wealth to Brahmanas learned
    in the Veda and living alone; (thus) one obtains after
    death heavenly bliss. 7. He who may possess (a supply
    of) food sucient to maintain those dependant on him
    during three years or more than that, is worthy to drink
    the Soma-juice. 8. But a twice-born man, who, though
    possessing less than that amount of property, neverthe-
    less drinks the Soma-juice, does not derive any bene t
    from that (act), though he may have formerly drunk the
    Soma-juice. 9. (If) an opulent man (is) liberal towards
    strangers, while his family lives in distress, that counter-
    feit virtue will rst make him taste the sweets (of fame,
    but afterwards) make him swallow the poison (of pun-
    ishment in hell). 10. If (a man) does anything for the
    sake of his happiness in another world, to the detriment
    of those whom he is bound to maintain, that produces
    evil results for him, both while he lives and when he is
    dead. 11. If a sacri ce, (o ered) by (any twice-born)
    sacri cer, (and) especially by a Brahmana, must remain
    incomplete through (the want of) one requisite, while a
    righteous king rules, 12. That article (required) for the
    completion of the sacri ce, may be taken (forcibly) from
    the house of any Vaisya, who possesses a large number
    of cattle, (but) neither performs the (minor) sacri ces
    nor drinks the Soma-juice; 13. (Or) the (sacri cer) may
    take at his pleasure two or three (articles required for a
    sacri ce) from the house of a Sudra; for a Sudra has no
    business with sacri ces. 14. If (a man) possessing one
    hundred cows, kindles not the sacred re, or one pos-
    sessing a thousand cows, drinks not the Soma-juice, a
    (sacri cer) may unhesitatingly take (what he requires)
    from the houses of those two, even (though they be Brah-
    manas or Kshatriyas); 15. (Or) he may take (it by force
    or fraud) from one who always takes and never gives,
    and who refuses to give it; thus the fame (of the taker)
    will spread and his merit increase. 16. Likewise he who
    has not eaten at (the time of) six meals, may take at
    (the time of) the seventh meal (food) from a man who
    neglects his sacred duties, without (however) making a
    provision for the morrow, 17. Either from the threshing-

    oor, or from a eld, or out of the house, or wherever he
    nds it; but if (the owner) asks him, he must confess to
    him that (deed and its cause). 18. (On such occasions)
    a Kshatriya must never take the property of a (virtuous
    Brahmana; but he who is starving may appropriate the
    possessions of a Dasyu, or of one who neglects his sa-
    cred duties. 19. He who takes property from the wicked
    and bestows it on the virtuous, transforms himself into
    a boat, and carries both (over the sea of misfortune).
    20. The property of those who zealously o er sacri ces,
    the wise call the property of the gods; but the wealth of
    those who perform no sacri ces is called the property of
    the Asuras. 21. On him (who, for the reasons stated, ap-
    propriates another's possessions), a righteous king shall
    not in
    ict punishment; for (in that case) a Brahmana
    pines with hunger through the Kshatriya's want of care.
    22. Having ascertained the number of those dependent
    on such a man, and having fully considered his learning
    and his conduct, the king shall allow him, out of his own
    property, a maintenance whereon he may live according
    to the law; 23. And after allotting to him a maintenance,
    the king must protect him in every way; for he obtains
    from such (a man) whom he protects, the part of his
    spiritual merit. 24. A Brahmana shall never beg from
    a Sudra property for a sacri ce; for a sacri cer, having
    begged (it from such a man), after death is born (again)
    as a Kandala. 25. A Brahmana who, having begged
    any property for a sacri ce, does not use the whole (for
    that purpose), becomes for a hundred years a (vulture
    of the kind called) Bhasa, or a crow. 26. That sinful
    man, who, through covetousness, seizes the property of
    the gods, or the property of Brahmanas, feeds in another
    world on the leavings of vultures. 27. In case the pre-
    scribed animal and Soma-sacri ces cannot be performed,
    let him always o er at the change of the year a Vaisva-
    nari Ishti as a penance (for the omission). 28. But a
    twice-born, who, without being in distress, performs his
    duties according to the law for times of distress, obtains
    no reward for them in the next world; that is the opinion
    (of the sages). 29. By the Visve-devas, by the Sadhyas,
    and by the great sages (of the) Brahmana (caste), who
    were afraid of perishing in times of distress, a substitute
    was made for the (principal) rule. 30. That evil-minded
    man, who, being able (to ful l) the original law, lives ac-
    cording to the secondary rule, reaps no reward for that
    after death. 31. A Brahmana who knows the law need
    not bring any (o ence) to the notice of the king; by his
    own power alone be can punish those men who injure
    him. 32. His own power is greater than the power of the
    king; the Brahmana therefore, may punish his foes by
    his own power alone. 33. Let him use without hesitation
    the sacred texts, revealed by Atharvan and by Angiras;
    speech, indeed, is the weapon of the Brahmana, with
    that he may slay his enemies. 34. A Kshatriya shall
    pass through misfortunes which have befallen him by
    the strength of his arms, a Vaisya and a Sudra by their
    wealth, the chief of the twice-born by muttered prayers
    and burnt-oblations. 35. The Brahmana is declared (to
    be) the creator (of the world), the punisher, the teacher,
    (and hence) a benefactor (of all created beings); to him
    let no man say anything unpropitious, nor use any harsh
    words. 36. Neither a girl, nor a (married) young woman,
    nor a man of little learning, nor a fool, nor a man in
    great su ering, nor one uninitiated, shall o er an Agni-
    hotra. 37. For such (persons) o ering a burnt-oblation
    sink into hell, as well as he to whom that (Agnihotra) be-
    longs; hence the person who sacri ces (for another) must
    be skilled in (the performance of) Vaitana (rites), and
    know the whole Veda. 38. A Brahmana who, though
    wealthy, does not give, as fee for the performance of
    an Agnyadheya, a horse sacred to Pragapati, becomes
    (equal to one) who has not kindled the sacred res. 39.
    Let him who has faith and controls his senses perform
    other meritorious acts, but let him on no account o er
    sacri ces at which he gives smaller fees (than those pre-
    scribed). 40. The organs (of sense and action), honour,
    (bliss in) heaven, longevity, fame, o spring, and cattle
    are destroyed by a sacri ce at which (too) small sacri -
    cial fees are given; hence a man of small means should
    not o er a (Srauta) sacri ce. 41. A Brahmana who, be-
    ing an Agnihotrin, voluntarily neglects the sacred res,
    shall perform a lunar penance during one month; for that
    (o ence) is equal to the slaughter of a son. 42. Those
    who, obtaining wealth from Sudras, (and using that) of-
    fer an Agnihotra, are priests ociating for Sudras, (and
    hence) censured among those who recite the Veda. 43.
    Treading with his foot on the heads of those fools who
    worship a re (kindled at the expense) of a Sudra, the
    giver (of the wealth) shall always pass over his miseries
    (in the next world). 44. A man who omits a prescribed
    act, or performs a blamable act, or cleaves to sensual
    enjoyments, must perform a penance. 45. (All) sages
    prescribe a penance for a sin unintentionally commit-
    ted; some declare, on the evidence of the revealed texts,
    (that it may be performed) even for an intentional (of-
    fence). 46. A sin unintentionally committed is expiated
    by the recitation of Vedic texts, but that which (men)
    in their folly commit intentionally, by various (special)
    penances. 47. A twice-born man, having become liable
    to perform a penance, be it by (the decree of) fate or
    by (an act) committed in a former life, must not, before
    the penance has been performed, have intercourse with
    virtuous men. 48. Some wicked men su er a change
    of their (natural) appearance in consequence of crimes
    committed in this life, and some in consequence of those
    committed in a former (existence). 49. He who steals
    the gold (of a Brahmana) has diseased nails; a drinker of
    (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, black teeth; the slayer
    of a Brahmana, consumption; the violator of a Guru's
    bed, a diseased skin; 50. An informer, a foul-smelling
    nose; a calumniator, a stinking breath; a stealer of grain,
    de ciency in limbs; he who adulterates (grain), redun-
    dant limbs; 51. A stealer of (cooked) food, dyspepsia; a
    stealer of the words (of the Veda), dumbness a stealer
    of clothes, white leprosy; a horse-stealer, lameness. 52.
    The stealer of a lamp will become blind; he who extin-
    guishes it will become one-eyed; injury (to sentient be-
    ings) is punished by general sickliness; an adulterer (will
    have) swellings (in his limbs). 53. Thus in consequence
    of a remnant of (the guilt of former) crimes, are born
    idiots, dumb, blind, deaf, and deformed men, who are
    (all) despised by the virtuous. 54. Penances, therefore,
    must always be performed for the sake of puri cation,
    because those whose sins have not been expiated, are
    born (again) with disgraceful marks. 55. Killing a Brah-
    mana, drinking (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, steal-
    ing (the gold of a Brahmana), adultery with a Guru's
    wife, and associating with such (o enders), they declare
    (to be) mortal sins (mahapataka). 56. Falsely attribut-
    ing to oneself high birth, giving information to the king
    (regarding a crime), and falsely accusing one's teacher,
    (are o ences) equal to slaying a Brahmana. 57. Forget-
    ting the Veda, reviling the Vedas, giving false evidence,
    slaying a friend, eating forbidden food, or (swallowing
    substances) un t for food, are six (o ences) equal to
    drinking Sura. 58. Stealing a deposit, or men, a horse,
    and silver, land, diamonds and (other) gems, is declared
    to be equal to stealing the gold (of a Brahmana). 59.
    Carnal intercourse with sisters by the same mother, with
    (unmarried) maidens, with females of the lowest castes,
    with the wives of a friend, or of a son, they declare to be
    equal to the violation of a Guru's bed. 60. Slaying kine,
    sacri cing for those who are unworthy to sacri ce, adul-
    tery, selling oneself, casting o one's teacher, mother,
    father, or son, giving up the (daily) study of the Veda,
    and neglecting the (sacred domestic) re, 61. Allowing
    one's younger brother to marry rst, marrying before
    one's elder brother, giving a daughter to, or sacri cing
    for, (either brother), 62. De ling a damsel, usury, break-
    ing a vow, selling a tank, a garden, one's wife, or child,
    63. Living as a Vratya, casting o a relative, teaching
    (the Veda) for wages, learning (the Veda) from a paid
    teacher, and selling goods which one ought not to sell,
    64. Superintending mines (or factories) of any sort, exe-
    cuting great mechanical works, injuring (living) plants,
    subsisting on (the earnings of) one's wife, sorcery (by
    means of sacri ces), and working (magic by means of)
    roots, (and so forth), 65. Cutting down green trees for
    rewood, doing acts for one's own advantage only, eat-
    ing prohibited food, 66. Neglecting to kindle the sacred
    res, theft, non-payment of (the three) debts, study-
    ing bad books, and practising (the arts of) dancing and
    singing, 67. Stealing grain, base metals, or cattle, inter-
    course with women who drink spirituous liquor, slaying
    women, Sudras, Vaisyas, or Kshatriyas, and atheism,
    (are all) minor o ences, causing loss of caste (Upap-
    ataka). 68. Giving pain to a Brahmana (by a blow),
    smelling at things which ought not to be smelt at, or
    at spirituous liquor, cheating, and an unnatural o ence
    with a man, are declared to cause the loss of caste (Gat-
    ibhramsa) 69. Killing a donkey, a horse, a camel, a
    deer, an elephant, a goat, a sheep, a sh, a snake, or a
    bu alo, must be known to degrade (the o ender) to a
    mixed caste (Samkarikarana). 70. Accepting presents
    from blamed men, trading, serving Sudras, and speak-
    ing a falsehood, make (the o ender) unworthy to receive
    gifts (Apatra). 71. Killing insects, small or large, or
    birds, eating anything kept close to spirituous liquors,
    stealing fruit, rewood, or
    owers, (are o ences) which
    make impure (Malavaha).
    72. Learn (now) completely those penances, by means
    of which all the several o ences mentioned (can) be ex-
    piated. 73. For his puri cation the slayer of a Brah-
    mana shall make a hut in the forest and dwell (in it)
    during twelve years, subsisting on alms and making the
    skull of a dead man his
    ag. 74. Or let him, of his
    own free will, become (in a battle) the target of archers
    who know (his purpose); or he may thrice throw him-
    self headlong into a blazing re; 75. Or he may o er a
    horse-sacri ce, a Svargit, a Gosava, an Abhigit, a Vis-
    vagit, a Trivrit, or an Agnishtut; 76. Or, in order to
    remove (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana, he may walk
    one hundred yoganas, reciting one of the Vedas, eating
    little, and controlling his organs; 77. Or he may present
    to a Brahmana, learned in the Vedas, whole property,
    as much wealth as suces for the maintenance (of the
    recipient), or a house together with the furniture; 78.
    Or, subsisting on sacri cial food, he may walk against
    the stream along (the whole course of the river) Saras-
    vati; or, restricting his food (very much), he may mutter
    thrice the Samhita of a Veda. 79. Having shaved o (all
    his hair), he may dwell at the extremity of the village,
    or in a cow-pen, or in a hermitage, or at the root of a
    tree, taking pleasure in doing good to cows and Brah-
    manas. 80. He who unhesitatingly abandons life for the
    sake of Brahmanas or of cows, is freed from (the guilt
    of) the murder of a Brahmana, and (so is he) who saves
    (the life of) a cow, or of a Brahmana. 81. If either he
    ghts at least three times (against robbers in defence
    of) a Brahmana's (property), or reconquers the whole
    property of a Brahmana, or if he loses his life for such
    a cause, he is freed (from his guilt). 82. He who thus
    (remains) always rm in his vow, chaste, and of con-
    centrated mind, removes after the lapse of twelve years
    (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana. 83. Or he who, after
    confessing his crime in an assembly of the gods of the
    earth (Brahnanas), and the gods of men (Kshatriyas),
    bathes (with the priests) at the close of a horse-sacri ce,
    is (also) freed (from guilt). 84. The Brahmana is de-
    clared (to be) the root of the sacred law and the Ksha-
    triya its top; hence he who has confessed his sin before
    an assembly of such men, becomes pure. 85. By his ori-
    gin alone a Brahmana is a deity even for the gods, and
    (his teaching is) authoritative for men, because the Veda
    is the foundation for that. 86. (If) only three of them
    who are learned in the Veda proclaim the expiation for
    o ences, that shall purify the (sinners); for the words of
    learned men are a means of puri cation. 87. A Brah-
    mana who, with a concentrated mind, follows any of the
    (above-mentioned) rules, removes the sin committed by
    slaying a Brahmana through his self-control. 88. For
    destroying the embryo (of a Brahmana, the sex of which
    was) unknown, for slaying a Kshatriya or a Vaisya who
    are (engaged in or) have o ered a (Vedic) sacri ce, or a
    (Brahmana) woman who has bathed after temporary un-
    cleanness (Atreyi), he must perform the same penance,
    89. Likewise for giving false evidence (in an important
    cause), for passionately abusing the teacher, for steal-
    ing a deposit, and for killing (his) wife or his friend:
    90. This expiation has been prescribed for unintention-
    ally killing a Brahmana; but for intentionally slaying a
    Brahmana no atonement is ordained. 91. A twice-born
    man who has (intentionally) drunk, through delusion of
    mind, (the spirituous liquor called) Sura shall drink that
    liquor boiling-hot; when his body has been completely
    scalded by that, he is freed from his guilt; 92. Or he
    may drink cow's urine, water, milk, clari ed butter or
    (liquid) cowdung boiling-hot, until he dies; 93. Or, in
    order to remove (the guilt of) drinking Sura, he may eat
    during a year once (a day) at night grains (of rice) or oil-
    cake, wearing clothes made of cowhair and his own hair
    in braids and carrying (a wine cup as) a
    ag. 94. Sura,
    indeed, is the dirty refuse (mala) of grain, sin also is
    called dirt (mala); hence a Brahmana, a Kshatriya, and
    a Vaisya shall not drink Sura. 95. Sura one must know
    to be of three kinds, that distilled from molasses (gaudi),
    that distilled from ground rice, and that distilled from
    owers (madhvi); as the one (named above)
    even so are all (three sorts) forbidden to the chief of
    the twice-born. 96. Sura, (all other) intoxicating drinks
    and decoctions and
    esh are the food of the Yakshas,
    Rakshasas, and Pisakas; a Brahmana who eats (the rem-
    nants of) the o erings consecrated to the gods, must not
    partake of such (substances). 97. A Brahmana, stupe-
    ed by drunkenness, might fall on something impure, or
    (improperly) pronounce Vedic (texts), or commit some
    other act which ought not to be committed. 98. When
    the Brahman (the Veda) which dwells in his body is
    (even) once (only) deluged with spirituous liquor, his
    Brahmanhood forsakes him and he becomes a Sudra.
    99. The various expiations for drinking (the spiritu-
    ous liquors called) Sura have thus been explained; I will
    next proclaim the atonement for stealing the gold (of a
    Brahmana). 100. A Brahmana who has stolen the gold
    (of a Brahmana) shall go to the king and, confessing his
    deed, say, 'Lord, punish me!' 101. Taking (from him)
    the club (which he must carry), the king himself shall
    strike him once, by his death the thief becomes pure; or a
    Brahmana (may purify himself) by austerities. 102. He
    who desires to remove by austerities the guilt of steal-
    ing the gold (of a Brahmana), shall perform the penance
    (prescribed) for the slayer of a Brahmana, (living) in a
    forest and dressed in (garments) made of bark. 103. By
    these penances a twice-born man may remove the guilt
    incurred by a theft (of gold); but he may atone for con-
    nexion with a Guru's wife by the following penances.
    104. He who has violated his Guru's bed, shall, after
    confessing his crime, extend himself on a heated iron
    bed, or embrace the red-hot image (of a woman); by dy-
    ing he becomes pure; 105. Or, having himself cut o
    his organ and his testicles and having taken them in his
    joined hands, he may walk straight towards the region
    of Nirriti (the south-west), until he falls down (dead);
    106. Or, carrying the foot of a bedstead, dressed in
    (garments of) bark and allowing his beard to grow, he
    may, with a concentrated mind, perform during a whole
    year the Krikkhra (or hard, penance), revealed by Pra-
    gapati, in a lonely forest; 107. Or, controlling his organs,
    he may during three months continuously perform the
    lunar penance, (subsisting) on sacri cial food or barley-
    gruel, in order to remove (the guilt of) violating a Guru's
    bed. 108. By means of these penances men who have
    committed mortal sins (Mahapataka) may remove their
    guilt, but those who committed minor o ences, caus-
    ing loss of caste, (Upapataka, can do it) by the various
    following penances. 109. He who has committed a mi-
    nor o ence by slaying a cow (or bull) shall drink during
    (the rst) month (a decoction of) barley-grains; having
    shaved all his hair, and covering himself with the hide (of
    the slain cow), he must live in a cow-house. 110. During
    the two (following) months he shall eat a small (quan-
    tity of food) without any factitious salt at every fourth
    meal-time, and shall bathe in the urine of cows, keeping
    his organs under control. 111. During the day he shall
    follow the cows and, standing upright, inhale the dust
    (raised by their hoofs); at night, after serving and wor-
    shipping them, he shall remain in the (posture, called)
    virasana. 112. Controlling himself and free from anger,
    he must stand when they stand, follow them when they
    walk, and seat himself when they lie down. 113. (When
    a cow is) sick, or is threatened by danger from thieves,
    tigers, and the like, or falls, or sticks in a morass, he
    must relieve her by all possible means: 114. In heat,
    in rain, or in cold, or when the wind blows violently,
    he must not seek to shelter himself, without ( rst) shel-
    tering the cows according to his ability. 115. Let him
    not say (a word), if a cow eats (anything) in his own
    or another's house or eld or on the threshing-
    oor, or
    if a calf drinks (milk). 116. The slayer of a cow who
    serves cows in this manner, removes after three months
    the guilt which he incurred by killing a cow. 117. But
    after he has fully performed the penance, he must give
    to (Brahmanas) learned in the Veda ten cows and a bull,
    (or) if he does not possess (so much property) he must
    o er to them all he has. 118. Twice-born men who have
    committed (other) minor o ences (Upapataka), except
    a student who has broken his vow (Avakirnin), may per-
    form, in order to purify themselves, the same penance or
    also a lunar penance. 119. But a student who has bro-
    ken his vow shall o er at night on a crossway to Nirriti
    a one-eyed ass, according to the rule of the Pakayagnas.
    120. Having o ered according to the rule oblations in
    the re, he shall nally o er (four) oblations of clari ed
    butter to Vata, to Indra, to the teacher (of the gods,
    Brihaspati) and to Agni, reciting the Rik verse 'May the
    Maruts grant me,' 121. Those who know the Veda de-
    clare that a voluntary e usion of semen by a twice-born
    (youth) who ful ls the vow (of studentship constitutes)
    a breach of that vow. 122. The divine light which the
    Veda imparts to the student, enters, if he breaks his vow,
    the Maruts, Puruhuta (Indra), the teacher (of the gods,
    Brihaspati) and Pavaka (Fire). 123. When this sin has
    been committed, he shall go begging to seven houses,
    dressed in the hide of the (sacri ced) ass, proclaiming
    his deed. 124. Subsisting on a single (daily meal that
    consists) of the alms obtained there and bathing at (the
    time of) the three savanas (morning, noon, and evening),
    he becomes pure after (the lapse of) one year. 125. For
    committing with intent any of the deeds which cause
    loss of caste (Gatibhramsakara), (the o ender) shall per-
    form a Samtapana Krikkhra; (for doing it) unintention-
    ally, (the Krikkhra) revealed by Pragapati. 126. As
    atonement for deeds which degrade to a mixed caste
    (Samkara), and for those which make a man unworthy
    to receive gifts (Apatra), (he shall perform) the lunar
    (penance) during a month; for (acts) which render im-
    pure (Malinikaraniya) he shall scald himself during three
    days with (hot) barley-gruel. 127. One fourth (of the
    penance) for the murder of a Brahmana is prescribed (as
    expiation) for (intentionally) killing a Kshatriya, one-
    eighth for killing a Vaisya; know that it is one-sixteenth
    for killing a virtuous Sudra. 128. But if a Brahmana
    unintentionally kills a Kshatriya, he shall give, in or-
    der to purify himself, one thousand cows and a bull;
    129. Or he may perform the penance prescribed for the
    murderer of a Brahmana during three years, controlling
    himself, wearing his hair in braids, staying far away from
    the village, and dwelling at the root of a tree. 130. A
    Brahmana who has slain a virtuous Vaisya, shall per-
    form the same penance during one year, or he may give
    one hundred cows and one (bull). 131. He who has slain
    a Sudra, shall perform that whole penance during six
    months, or he may also give ten white cows and one bull
    to a Brahmana. 132. Having killed a cat, an ichneu-
    mon, a blue jay, a frog, a dog, an iguana, an owl, or a
    crow, he shall perform the penance for the murder of a
    Sudra; 133. Or he may drink milk during three days, or
    walk one hundred yoganas, or bathe in a river, or mutter
    the hymn addressed to the Waters. 134. For killing a
    snake, a Brahmana shall give a spade of black iron, for
    a eunuch a load of straw and a masha of lead; 135. For
    a boar a pot of clari ed butter, for a partridge a drona
    of sesamum-grains, for a parrot a calf two years old, for
    a crane (a calf) three years old. 136. If he has killed a
    Hamsa, a Balaka, a heron, a pea****, a monkey, a falcon,
    or a Bhasa, he shall give a cow to a Brahmana. 137. For
    killing a horse, he shall give a garment, for (killing) an
    elephant, ve black bulls, for (killing) a goat, or a sheep,
    a draught-ox, for killing a donkey, (a calf) one year old;
    138. But for killing carnivorous wild beasts, he shall give
    a milch-cow, for (killing) wild beasts that are not carniv-
    orous, a heifer, for killing a camel, one krishnala. 139.
    For killing adulterous women of the four castes, he must
    give, in order to purify himself, respectively a leathern
    bag, a bow, a goat, or a sheep. 140. A twice-born man,
    who is unable to atone by gifts for the slaughter of a
    serpent and the other (creatures mentioned), shall per-
    form for each of them, a Krikkhra (penance) in order to
    remove his guilt. 141. But for destroying one thousand
    (small) animals that have bones, or a whole cart-load of
    boneless (animals), he shall perform the penance (pre-
    scribed) for the murder of a Sudra. 142. But for killing
    (small) animals which have bones, he should give some
    e to a Brahmana; if he injures boneless (animals), he
    becomes pure by a suppressing his breath (pranayama).
    143. For cutting fruit-trees, shrubs, creepers, lianas, or

    owering plants, one hundred Rikas must be muttered.
    144. (For destroying) any kind of creature, bred in food,
    in condiments, in fruit, or in
    owers, the expiation is
    to eat clari ed butter. 145. If a man destroys for no
    good purpose plants produced by cultivation, or such as
    spontaneously spring up in the forest, he shall attend a
    cow during one day, subsisting on milk alone.
    146. The guilt incurred intentionally or uninten-
    tionally by injuring (created beings) can be removed by
    means of these penances; hear (now, how) all (sins) com-
    mitted by partaking of forbidden food (or drink, can
    be expiated). 147. He who drinks unintentionally (the
    spirituous liquor, called) Varuni, becomes pure by be-
    ing initiated (again); (even for drinking it) intentionally
    (a penance) destructive to life must not be imposed;
    that is a settled rule. 148. He who has drunk water
    which has stood in a vessel used for keeping (the spiri-
    tuous liquor, called) Sura, or other intoxicating drinks,
    shall drink during ve (days and) nights (nothing but)
    milk in which the Sankhapushpi (plant) has been boiled.
    149. He who has touched spirituous liquor, has given it
    away, or received it in accordance with the rule, or has
    drunk water left by a Sudra, shall drink during three
    days water in which Kusa-grass has been boiled. 150.
    But when a Brahmana who has partaken of Soma-juice,
    has smelt the odour exhaled by a drinker of Sura, he
    becomes pure by thrice suppressing his breath in water,
    and eating clari ed butter. 151. (Men of) the three
    twice-born castes who have unintentionally swallowed
    ordure or urine, or anything that has touched Sura, must
    be initiated again. 152. The tonsure, (wearing) the sa-
    cred girdle, (carrying) a sta , going to beg, and the vows
    (incumbent on a student), are omitted on the second ini-
    tiation of twice-born men. 153. But he who has eaten
    the food of men, whose food must not be eaten, or the
    leavings of women and Sudras, or forbidden
    esh, shall
    drink barley (-gruel) during seven (days and) nights.
    154. A twice-born man who has drunk (
    uids that have
    turned) sour, or astringent decoctions, becomes, though
    (these substances may) not (be specially) forbidden, im-
    pure until they have been digested. 155. A twice-born
    man, who has swallowed the urine or ordure of a village
    pig, of a donkey, of a camel, of a jackal, of a monkey,
    or of a crow, shall perform a lunar penance. 156. He
    who has eaten dried meat, mushrooms growing on the
    ground, or (meat, the nature of) which is unknown, (or)
    such as had been kept in a slaughter-house, shall perform
    the same penance. 157. The atonement for partaking
    of (the meat of) carnivorous animals, of pigs, of camels,
    of ****s, of crows, of donkeys, and of human
    esh, is a
    Tapta Krikkhra (penance). 158. If a twice-born man,
    who has not returned (home from his teacher's house),
    eats food, given at a monthly (Sraddha,) he shall fast
    during three days and pass one day (standing) in wa-
    ter. 159. But a student who on any occasion eats honey
    or meat, shall perform an ordinary Krikkhra (penance),
    and afterwards complete his vow (of studentship). 160.
    He who eats what is left by a cat, by a crow, by a mouse
    (or rat), by a dog, or by an ichneumon, or (food) into
    which a hair or an insect has fallen, shall drink (a de-
    coction of) the Brahmasuvarkala (plant). 161. He who
    desires to be pure, must not eat forbidden food, and
    must vomit up such as he has eaten unintentionally, or
    quickly atone for it by (various) means of puri cation.
    162. The various rules respecting penances for eat-
    ing forbidden food have been thus declared; hear now
    the law of those penances which remove the guilt of
    theft. 163. The chief of the twice-born, having volun-
    tarily stolen (valuable) property, grain, or cooked food,
    from the house of a caste-fellow, is puri ed by perform-
    ing Krikkhra (penances) during a whole year. 164. The
    lunar penance has been declared to be the expiation for
    stealing men and women, and (for wrongfully appropri-
    ating) a eld, a house, or the water of wells and cisterns.
    165. He who has stolen objects of small value from the
    house of another man, shall, after restoring the (stolen
    article), perform a Samtapana Krikkhra for his puri -
    cation. 166. (To swallow) the ve products of the cow
    (pankagavya) is the atonement for stealing eatables of
    various kinds, a vehicle, a bed, a seat,
    owers, roots,
    or fruit. 167. Fasting during three (days and) nights
    shall be (the penance for stealing) grass, wood, trees,
    dry food, molasses, clothes, leather, and meat. 168. To
    subsist during twelve days on (uncooked) grains (is the
    penance for stealing) gems, pearls, coral, copper, sil-
    ver, iron, brass, or stone. 169. (For stealing) cotton,
    silk, wool, an animal with cloven hoofs, or one with un-
    cloven hoofs, a bird, perfumes, medicinal herbs, or a rope
    (the penance is to subsist) during three days (on) milk.
    170. By means of these penances, a twice-born man
    may remove the guilt of theft; but the guilt of approach-
    ing women who ought not to be approached (agamya),
    he may expiate by (the following) penances. 171. He
    who has had sexual intercourse with sisters by the same
    mother, with the wives of a friend, or of a son, with un-
    married maidens, and with females of the lowest castes,
    shall perform the penance, prescribed for the violation of
    a Guru's bed. 172. He who has approached the daughter
    of his father's sister, (who is almost equal to) a sister,
    (the daughter) of his mother's sister, or of his mother's
    full brother, shall perform a lunar penance. 173. A wise
    man should not take as his wife any of these three; they
    must not be wedded because they are (Sapinda-) rela-
    tives, he who marries (one of them), sinks low. 174. A
    man who has committed a bestial crime, or an unnatu-
    ral crime with a female, or has had intercourse in water,
    or with a menstruating woman, shall perform a Samta-
    pana Krikkhra. 175. A twice-born man who commits an
    unnatural o ence with a male, or has intercourse with a
    female in a cart drawn by oxen, in water, or in the day-
    time, shall bathe, dressed in his clothes. 176. A Brah-
    mana who unintentionally approaches a woman of the
    Kandala or of (any other) very low caste, who eats (the
    food of such persons) and accepts (presents from them)
    becomes an outcast; but (if he does it) intentionally, he
    becomes their equal. 177. An exceedingly corrupt wife
    let her husband con ne to one apartment, and compel
    her to perform the penance which is prescribed for males
    in cases of adultery. 178. If, being solicited by a man
    (of) equal (caste), she (afterwards) is again unfaithful,
    then a Krikkhra and a lunar penance are prescribed as
    the means of purifying her. 179. The sin which a twice-
    born man commits by dallying one night with a Vrishali,
    he removes in three years, by subsisting on alms and
    daily muttering (sacred texts).
    180. The atonement (to be performed) by sinners
    (of) four (kinds) even, has been thus declared; hear now
    the penances for those who have intercourse with out-
    casts. 181. He who associates with an outcast, himself
    becomes an outcast after a year, not by sacri cing for
    him, teaching him, or forming a matrimonial alliance
    with him, but by using the same carriage or seat, or
    by eating with him. 182. He who associates with any
    one of those outcasts, must perform, in order to atone
    for (such) intercourse, the penance prescribed for that
    (sinner). 183. The Sapindas and Samanodakas of an
    outcast must o er (a libation of) water (to him, as if
    he were dead), outside (the village), on an inauspicious
    day, in the evening and in the presence of the relatives,
    ociating priests, and teachers. 184. A female slave
    shall upset with her foot a pot lled with water, as if
    it were for a dead person; (his Sapindas) as well as the
    Samanodakas shall be impure for a day and a night; 185.
    But thenceforward it shall be forbidden to converse with
    him, to sit with him, to give him a share of the inheri-
    tance, and to hold with him such intercourse as is usual
    among men; 186. And (if he be the eldest) his right
    of primogeniture shall be withheld and the additional
    share, due to the eldest son; and his stead a younger
    brother, excelling in virtue, shall obtain the share of the
    eldest. 187. But when he has performed his penance,
    they shall bathe with him in a holy pool and throw down
    a new pot, lled with water. 188. But he shall throw
    that pot into water, enter his house and perform, as be-
    fore, all the duties incumbent on a relative. 189. Let
    him follow the same rule in the case of female outcasts;
    but clothes, food, and drink shall be given to them, and
    they shall live close to the (family-) house. 190. Let
    him not transact any business with unpuri ed sinners;
    but let him in no way reproach those who have made
    atonement. 191. Let him not dwell together with the
    murderers of children, with those who have returned evil
    for good, and with the slayers of suppliants for protec-
    tion or of women, though they may have been puri ed
    according to the sacred law. 192. Those twice-born
    men who may not have been taught the Savitri (at the
    time) prescribed by the rule, he shall cause to perform
    three Krikkhra (penances) and afterwards initiate them
    in accordance with the law. 193. Let him prescribe
    the same (expiation) when twice-born men, who follow
    forbidden occupations or have neglected (to learn) the
    Veda, desire to perform a penance. 194. If Brahmanas
    acquire property by a reprehensible action, they become
    pure by relinquishing it, muttering prayers, and (per-
    forming) austerities. 195. By muttering with a concen-
    trated mind the Savitri three thousand times, (dwelling)
    for a month in a cow-house, (and) subsisting on milk,
    (a man) is freed from (the guilt of) accepting presents
    from a wicked man. 196. But when he returns from
    the cow-house, emaciated with his fast, and reverently
    salutes, (the Brahmanas) shall ask him, 'Friend, dost
    thou desire to become our equal?' 197. If he answers to
    the Brahmanas, 'Forsooth, (I will not o end again), 'he
    shall scatter (some) grass for the cows; if the cows hallow
    that place (by eating the grass) the (Brahmana) shall
    re-admit him (into their community). 198. He who has
    sacri ced for Vratyas, or has performed the obsequies
    of strangers, or a magic sacri ce (intended to destroy
    life) or an Ahina sacri ce, removes (his guilt) by three
    Krikkhra (penances). 199. A twice-born man who has
    cast o a suppliant for protection, or has (improperly)
    divulged the Veda, atones for his o ence, if he subsists
    during a year on barley. 200. He who has been bitten by
    a dog, a jackal, or a donkey, by a tame carnivorous ani-
    mal, by a man, a horse, a camel, or a (village-) pig, be-
    comes pure by suppressing his breath (Pranayama). 201.
    To eat during a month at each sixth mealtime (only), to
    recite the Samhita (of a Veda), and (to perform) daily
    the Sakala oblations, are the means of purifying those
    excluded from society at repasts (Apanktya). 202. A
    Brahmana who voluntarily rode in a carriage drawn by
    camels or by asses, and he who bathed naked, become
    pure by suppressing his breath (Pranayama). 203. He
    who has relieved the necessities of nature, being greatly
    pressed, either without (using) water or in water, be-
    comes pure by bathing outside (the village) in his clothes
    and by touching a cow. 204. Fasting is the penance for
    omitting the daily rites prescribed by the Veda and for
    neglecting the special duties of a Snataka. 205. He who
    has said 'Hum' to a Brahmana, or has addressed one
    of his betters with 'Thou,' shall bathe, fast during the
    remaining part of the day, and appease (the person of-
    fended) by a reverential salutation. 206. He who has
    struck (a Brahmana) even with a blade of grass, tied
    him by the neck with a cloth, or conquered him in an al-
    tercation, shall appease him by a prostration. 207. But
    he who, intending to hurt a Brahmana, has threatened
    (him with a stick and the like) shall remain in hell during
    a hundred years; he who (actually) struck him, during
    one thousand years. 208. As many particles of dust
    as the blood of a Brahmana causes to coagulate, for so
    many thousand years shall the shedder of that (blood)
    remain in hell. 209. For threatening a Brahmana, (the
    o ender) shall perform a Krikkhra, for striking him an
    Atikrikkhra, for shedding his blood a Krikkhra and an
    Atikrikkhra. 210. For the expiation of o ences for which
    no atonement has been prescribed, let him x a penance
    after considering (the o ender's) strength and the (na-
    ture of the) o ence.
    211. I will (now) describe to you those means, adopted
    by the gods, the sages, and the manes, through which a
    man may remove his sins. 212. A twice-born man who
    performs (the Krikkhra penance), revealed by Pragap-
    ati, shall eat during three days in the morning (only),
    during (the next) three days in the evening (only), dur-
    ing the (following) three days (food given) unasked, and
    shall fast during another period of three days. 213.
    (Subsisting on) the urine of cows, cowdung, milk, sour
    milk, clari ed butter, and a decoction of Kusa-grass, and
    fasting during one (day and) night, (that is) called a
    Samtapana Krikkhra. 214. A twice-born man who per-
    forms an Atikrikkhra (penance), must take his food dur-
    ing three periods of three days in the manner described
    above, (but) one mouthful only at each meal, and fast
    during the last three days. 215. A Brahmana who per-
    forms a Taptakrikkhra (penance) must drink hot water,
    hot milk, hot clari ed butter and (inhale) hot air, each
    during three days, and bathe once with a concentrated
    mind. 216. A fast for twelve days by a man who con-
    trols himself and commits no mistakes, is called a Paraka
    Krikkhra, which removes all guilt. 217. If one diminishes
    (one's food daily by) one mouthful during the dark (half
    of the month) and increases (it in the same manner)
    during the bright half, and bathes (daily) at the time
    of three libations (morning, noon, and evening), that
    is called a lunar penance (Kandrayana). 218. Let him
    follow throughout the same rule at the (Kandrayana,
    called) yavamadhyama (shaped like a barley-corn), (but)
    let him (in that case) begin the lunar penance, (with a)
    controlled (mind), on the rst day of the bright half (of
    the month). 219. He who performs the lunar penance
    of ascetics, shall eat (during a month) daily at midday
    eight mouthfuls, controlling himself and consuming sac-
    ri cial food (only). 220. If a Brahmana, with concen-
    trated mind, eats (during a month daily) four mouthfuls
    in a morning and four after sunset, (that is) called the
    lunar penance of children. 221. He who, concentrat-
    ing his mind, eats during a month in any way thrice
    eighty mouthfuls of sacri cial food, dwells (after death)
    in the world of the moon. 222. The Rudras, likewise
    the Adityas, the Vasus and the Maruts, together with
    the great sages, practised this (rite) in order to remove
    all evil. 223. Burnt oblations, accompanied by (the
    recitation of) the Mahavyahritis,must daily be made (by
    the penitent) himself, and he must abstain from injuring
    (sentient creatures), speak the truth, and keep himself
    free from anger and from dishonesty. 224. Let him bathe
    three times each day and thrice each night, dressed in
    his clothes; let him on no account talk to women, Su-
    dras, and outcasts. 225. Let him pass the time standing
    (during the day) and sitting (during the night), or if he
    is unable (to do that) let him lie on the (bare) ground;
    let him be chaste and observe the vows (of a student)
    and worship his Gurus, the gods, and Brahmanas. 226.
    Let him constantly mutter the Savitri and (other) puri -
    catory texts according to his ability; (let him) carefully
    (act thus) on (the occasion of) all (other) vows (per-
    formed) by way of penance. 227. By these expiations
    twice-born men must be puri ed whose sins are known,
    but let him purify those whose sins are not known by
    (the recitation of) sacred texts and by (the performance
    of) burnt oblations. 228. By confession, by repentance,
    by austerity, and by reciting (the Veda) a sinner is freed
    from guilt, and in case no other course is possible, by
    liberality. 229. In proportion as a man who has done
    wrong, himself confesses it, even so far he is freed from
    guilt, as a snake from its slough. 230. In proportion as
    his heart loathes his evil deed, even so far is his body
    freed from that guilt. 231. He who has committed a
    sin and has repented, is freed from that sin, but he is
    puri ed only by (the resolution of) ceasing (to sin and
    thinking) 'I will do so no more.' 232. Having thus con-
    sidered in his mind what results will arise from his deeds
    after death, let him always be good in thoughts, speech,
    and actions. 233. He who, having either unintentionally
    or intentionally committed a reprehensible deed, desires
    to be freed from (the guilt on it, must not commit it a
    second time. 234. If his mind be uneasy with respect to
    any act, let him repeat the austerities (prescribed as a
    penance) for it until they fully satisfy (his conscience).
    235. All the bliss of gods and men is declared by the
    sages to whom the Veda was revealed, to have austerity
    for its root, austerity for its middle, and austerity for
    its end. 236. (The pursuit of sacred) knowledge is the
    austerity of a Brahmana, protecting (the people) is the
    austerity of a Kshatriya, (the pursuit of) his daily busi-
    ness is the austerity of aVaisya, and service the austerity
    of a Sudra. 237. The sages who control themselves and
    subsist on fruit, roots, and air, survey the three worlds
    together with their moving and immovable (creatures)
    through their austerities alone. 238. Medicines, good
    health, learning, and the various divine stations are at-
    tained by austerities alone; for austerity is the means of
    gaining them. 239. Whatever is hard to be traversed,
    whatever is hard to be attained, whatever is hard to
    be reached, whatever is hard to be performed, all (this)
    may be accomplished by austerities; for austerity (pos-
    sesses a power) which it is dicult to surpass. 240. Both
    those who have committed mortal sin (Mahapataka) and
    all other o enders are severally freed from their guilt
    by means of well-performed austerities. 241. Insects,
    snakes, moths, bees, birds and beings, bereft of motion,
    reach heaven by the power of austerities. 242. Whatever
    sin men commit by thoughts, words, or deeds, that they
    speedily burn away by penance, if they keep penance as
    their only riches. 243. The gods accept the o erings of
    that Brahmana alone who has puri ed himself by aus-
    terities, and grant to him all he desires. 244. The lord,
    Pragapati, created these Institutes (of the sacred law)
    by his austerities alone; the sages likewise obtained (the
    revelation of) the Vedas through their austerities. 245.
    The gods, discerning that the holy origin of this whole
    (world) is from austerity, have thus proclaimed the in-
    comparable power of austerity. 246. The daily study of
    the Veda, the performance of the great sacri ces accord-
    ing to one's ability, (and) patience (in su ering) quickly
    destroy all guilt, even that caused by mortal sins. 247.
    As a re in one moment consumes with its bright
    the fuel that has been placed on it, even so he who knows
    the Veda destroys all guilt by the re of knowledge.
    248. The penances for sins (made public) have been
    thus declared according to the law; learn next the penances
    for secret (sins). 249. Sixteen suppressions of the breath
    (Pranayama) accompanied by (the recitation of) the Vyahri-
    tis and of the syllable Om, purify, if they are repeated
    daily, after a month even the murderer of a learned Brah-
    mana. 250. Even a drinker of (the spirituous liquor
    called) Sura becomes pure, if he mutters the hymn (seen)
    by Kutsa, 'Removing by thy splendour our guilt, O Agni,'
    , (that seen) by Vasishtha, 'With their hymns the Va-
    sishthas woke the Dawn,' , the Mahitra (hymn) and (the
    verses called) Suddhavatis. 251. Even he who has stolen
    gold, instantly becomes free from guilt, if he once mut-
    ters (the hymn beginning with the words) 'The middle-
    most brother of this beautiful, ancient Hotri-priest' and
    the Sivasamkalpa. 252. The violator of a Guru's bed
    is freed (from sin), if he repeatedly recites the Havish-
    pantiya (hymn), (that beginning) 'Neither anxiety nor
    misfortune,' (and that beginning) 'Thus, verily, thus,'
    and mutters the hymn addressed to Purusha. 253. He
    who desires to expiate sins great or small, must mutter
    during a year the Rit-verse 'May we remove thy anger,
    O Varuna,' , or 'Whatever o ence here, O Varuna'. 254.
    That man who, having accepted presents which ought
    not to be accepted, or having eaten forbidden food, mut-
    ters the Taratsamandiya (Rikas), becomes pure after
    three days. 255. But he who has committed many sins,
    becomes pure, if he recites during a month the (four
    verses) addressed to Soma and Rudra, and the three
    verses (beginning) 'Aryaman, Varuna, and Mitra,' while
    he bathes in a river. 256. A grievous o ender shall mut-
    ter the seven verses (beginning with) 'Indra,' for half a
    year; but he who has committed any blamable act in
    water, shall subsist during a month on food obtained
    by begging. 257. A twice-born man removes even very
    great guilt by o ering clari ed butter with the sacred
    texts belonging to the Sakala-homas, or by muttering
    the Rik, (beginning) 'Adoration.' 258. He who is stained
    by mortal sin, becomes pure, if, with a concentrated
    mind, he attends cows for a year, reciting the Pavamani
    (hymns) and subsisting on alms. 259. Or if, pure (in
    mind and in body), he thrice repeats the Samhita of the
    Veda in a forest, sancti ed by three Paraka (penances),
    he is freed from all crimes causing loss of caste (pataka).
    260. But if (a man) fasts during three days, bathing
    thrice a day, and muttering (in the water the hymn seen
    by) Aghamarshana, he is (likewise) freed from all sins
    causing loss of caste. 261. As the horse-sacri ce, the
    king of sacri ces, removes all sin, even so the Aghamar-
    shana hymn e aces all guilt. 262. A Brahmana who
    retains in his memory the Rig-veda is not stained by
    guilt, though he may have destroyed these three worlds,
    though he may eat the food of anybody. 263. He who,
    with a concentrated mind, thrice recites the Riksamhita,
    or (that of the) Yagur-veda; or (that of the) Sama-veda
    together with the secret (texts, the Upanishads), is com-
    pletely freed from all sins. 264. As a clod of earth, falling
    into a great lake, is quickly dissolved, even so every sin-
    ful act is engulfed in the threefold Veda. 265. The Rikas,
    the Yagus (-formulas) which di er (from the former), the
    manifold Saman (-songs), must be known (to form) the
    triple Veda; he who knows them, (is called) learned in
    the Veda. 266. The initial triliteral Brahman on which
    the threefold (sacred science) is based, is another triple
    Veda which must be kept secret; he who knows that, (is
    called) learned in the Veda.
    1. 'O sinless One, the whole sacred law, (applicable)
    to the four castes, has been declared by thee; commu-
    nicate to us (now), according to the truth, the ultimate
    retribution for (their) deeds.' 2. To the great sages
    (who addressed him thus) righteous Bhrigu, sprung from
    Manu, answered, 'Hear the // decision concerning this
    whole connexion with actions.' 3. Action, which springs
    from the mind, from speech, and from the body, pro-
    duces either good or evil results; by action are caused
    the (various) conditions of men, the highest, the mid-
    dling, and the lowest. 4. Know that the mind is the
    instigator here below, even to that (action) which is con-
    nected with the body, (and) which is of three kinds, has
    three locations, and falls under ten heads. 5. Coveting
    the property of others, thinking in one's heart of what is
    undesirable, and adherence to false (doctrines), are the
    three kinds of (sinful) mental action. 6. Abusing (oth-
    ers, speaking) untruth, detracting from the merits of all
    men, and talking idly, shall be the four kinds of (evil)
    verbal action. 7. Taking what has not been given, in-
    juring (creatures) without the sanction of the law, and
    holding criminal intercourse with another man's wife,
    are declared to be the three kinds of (wicked) bodily ac-
    tion. 8. (A man) obtains (the result of) a good or evil
    mental (act) in his mind, (that of) a verbal (act) in his
    speech, (that of) a bodily (act) in his body. 9. In conse-
    quence of (many) sinful acts committed with his body, a
    man becomes (in the next birth) something inanimate,
    in consequence (of sins) committed by speech, a bird,
    or a beast, and in consequence of mental (sins he is re-
    born in) a low caste. 10. That man is called a (true)
    tridandin in whose mind these three, the control over his
    speech (vagdanda), the control over his thoughts (man-
    odanda), and the control over his body (kayadanda),
    are rmly xed. 11. That man who keeps this three-
    fold control (over himself) with respect to all created
    beings and wholly subdues desire and wrath, thereby
    assuredly gains complete success. 12. Him who impels
    this (corporeal) Self to action, they call the Kshetragna
    (the knower of the eld); but him who does the acts,
    the wise name the Bhutatman (the Self consisting of the
    elements). 13. Another internal Self that is generated
    with all embodied (Kshetragnas) is called Giva, through
    which (the Kshetragna) becomes sensible of all pleasure
    and pain in (successive) births. 14. These two, the Great
    One and the Kshetragna, who are closely united with the
    elements, pervade him who resides in the multiform cre-
    ated beings. 15. From his body innumerable forms go
    forth, which constantly impel the multiform creatures
    to action. 16. Another strong body, formed of parti-
    cles (of the) ve (elements and) destined to su er the
    torments (in hell), is produced after death (in the case)
    of wicked men. 17. When (the evil-doers) by means of
    that body have su ered there the torments imposed by
    Yama, (its constituent parts) are united, each accord-
    ing to its class, with those very elements (from which
    they were taken). 18. He, having su ered for his faults,
    which are produced by attachment to sensual objects,
    and which result in misery, approaches, free from stains,
    those two mighty ones. 19. Those two together examine
    without tiring the merit and the guilt of that (individ-
    ual soul), united with which it obtains bliss or misery
    both in this world and the next. 20. If (the soul) chie
    practises virtue and vice to a small degree, it obtains
    bliss in heaven, clothed with those very elements. 21.
    But if it chie
    y cleaves to vice and to virtue in a small
    degree, it su ers, deserted by the elements, the torments
    icted by Yama. 22. The individual soul, having en-
    dured those torments of Yama, again enters, free from
    taint, those very ve elements, each in due proportion.
    23. Let (man), having recognised even by means of his
    intellect these transitions of the individual soul (which
    depend) on merit and demerit, always x his heart on
    (the acquisition of) merit. 24. Know Goodness (sattva),
    Activity (ragas), and Darkness (tamas) to be the three
    qualities of the Self, with which the Great One always
    completely pervades all existences. 25. When one of
    these qualities wholly predominates in a body, then it
    makes the embodied (soul) eminently distinguished for
    that quality. 26. Goodness is declared (to have the form
    of) knowledge, Darkness (of) ignorance, Activity (of)
    love and hatred; such is the nature of these (three) which
    is (all-) pervading and clings to everything created. 27.
    When (man) experiences in his soul a (feeling) full of
    bliss, a deep calm, as it were, and a pure light, then
    let him know (that it is) among those three (the qual-
    ity called) Goodness. 28. What is mixed with pain and
    does not give satisfaction to the soul one may know (to
    be the quality of) Activity, which is dicult to conquer,
    and which ever draws embodied (souls towards sensual
    objects). 29. What is coupled with delusion, what has
    the character of an undiscernible mass, what cannot be
    fathomed by reasoning, what cannot be fully known, one
    must consider (as the quality of) Darkness.
    30. I will, moreover, fully describe the results which
    arise from these three qualities, the excellent ones, the
    middling ones, and the lowest. 31. The study of the
    Vedas, austerity, (the pursuit of) knowledge, purity, con-
    trol over the organs, the performance of meritorious acts
    and meditation on the Soul, (are) the marks of the qual-
    ity of Goodness. 32. Delighting in undertakings, want of
    rmness, commission of sinful acts, and continual indul-
    gence in sensual pleasures, (are) the marks of the quality
    of Activity. 33. Covetousness, sleepiness, pusillanimity,
    cruelty, atheism, leading an evil life, a habit of soliciting
    favours, and inattentiveness, are the marks of the qual-
    ity of Darkness. 34. Know, moreover, the following to
    be a brief description of the three qualities, each in its
    order, as they appear in the three (times, the present,
    past, and future). 35. When a (man), having done, do-
    ing, or being about to do any act, feels ashamed, the
    learned may know that all (such acts bear) the mark of
    the quality of Darkness. 36. But, when (a man) desires
    (to gain) by an act much fame in this world and feels
    no sorrow on failing, know that it (bears the mark of
    the quality of) Activity. 37. But that (bears) the mark
    of the quality of Goodness which with his whole (heart)
    he desires to know, which he is not ashamed to perform,
    and at which his soul rejoices. 38. The craving after sen-
    sual pleasures is declared to be the mark of Darkness,
    (the pursuit of) wealth (the mark) of Activity, (the de-
    sire to gain) spiritual merit the mark of Goodness; each
    later) named quality is) better than the preceding one.
    39. I will brie
    y declare in due order what trans-
    migrations in this whole (world a man) obtains through
    each of these qualities. 40. Those endowed with Good-
    ness reach the state of gods, those endowed with Ac-
    tivity the state of men, and those endowed with Dark-
    ness ever sink to the condition of beasts; that is the
    threefold course of transmigrations. 41. But know this
    threefold course of transmigrations that depends on the
    (three) qualities (to be again) threefold, low, middling,
    and high, according to the particular nature of the acts
    and of the knowledge (of each man). 42. Immovable
    (beings), insects, both small and great, shes, snakes,
    and tortoises, cattle and wild animals, are the lowest
    conditions to which (the quality of) Darkness leads. 43.
    Elephants, horses, Sudras, and despicable barbarians, li-
    ons, tigers, and boars (are) the middling states, caused
    by (the quality of) Darkness. 44. Karanas, Suparnas
    and hypocrites, Rakshasas and Pisakas (belong to) the
    highest (rank of) conditions among those produced by
    Darkness. 45. Ghallas, Mallas, Natas, men who subsist
    by despicable occupations and those addicted to gam-
    bling and drinking (form) the lowest (order of) condi-
    tions caused by Activity. 46. Kings and Kshatriyas, the
    domestic priests of kings, and those who delight in the
    warfare of disputations (constitute) the middling (rank
    of the) states caused by Activity. 47. The Gandharvas,
    the Guhyakas, and the servants of the gods, likewise the
    Apsarases, (belong all to) the highest (rank of) condi-
    tions produced by Activity. 48. Hermits, ascetics, Brah-
    manas, the crowds of the Vaimanika deities, the lunar
    mansions, and the Daityas (form) the rst (and lowest
    rank of the) existences caused by Goodness. 49. Sacri -
    cers, the sages, the gods, the Vedas, the heavenly lights,
    the years, the manes, and the Sadhyas (constitute) the
    second order of existences, caused by Goodness. 50. The
    sages declare Brahma, the creators of the universe, the
    law, the Great One, and the Undiscernible One (to con-
    stitute) the highest order of beings produced by Good-
    51. Thus (the result) of the threefold action, the
    whole system of transmigrations which (consists) of three
    classes, (each) with three subdivisions, and which in-
    cludes all created beings, has been fully pointed out.
    52. In consequence of attachment to (the objects of)
    the senses, and in consequence of the non-performance
    of their duties, fools, the lowest of men, reach the vilest
    births. 53. What wombs this individual soul enters in
    this world and in consequence of what actions, learn
    the particulars of that at large and in due order. 54.
    Those who committed mortal sins (mahapataka), having
    passed during large numbers of years through dreadful
    hells, obtain, after the expiration of (that term of pun-
    ishment), the following births. 55. The slayer of a Brah-
    mana enters the womb of a dog, a pig, an ass, a camel,
    a cow, a goat, a sheep, a deer, a bird, a Kandala, and
    a Pukkasa. 56. A Brahmana who drinks (the spiritu-
    ous liquor called) Sura shall enter (the bodies) of small
    and large insects, of moths, of birds, feeding on ordure,
    and of destructive beasts. 57. A Brahmana who steals
    (the gold of a Brahmana shall pass) a thousand times
    (through the bodies) of spiders, snakes and lizards, of
    aquatic animals and of destructive Pisakas. 58. The
    violator of a Guru's bed (enters) a hundred times (the
    forms) of grasses, shrubs, and creepers, likewise of car-
    nivorous (animals) and of (beasts) with fangs and of
    those doing cruel deeds. 59. Men who delight in doing
    hurt (become) carnivorous (animals); those who eat for-
    bidden food, worms; thieves, creatures consuming their
    own kind; those who have intercourse with women of the
    lowest castes, Pretas. 60. He who has associated with
    outcasts, he who has approached the wives of other men,
    and he who has stolen the property of a Brahmana be-
    come Brahmarakshasas. 61. A man who out of greed
    has stolen gems, pearls or coral, or any of the many other
    kinds of precious things, is born among the goldsmiths.
    62. For stealing grain (a man) becomes a rat, for steal-
    ing yellow metal a Hamsa, for stealing water a Plava,
    for stealing honey a stinging insect, for stealing milk a
    crow, for stealing condiments a dog, for stealing clari ed
    butter an ichneumon; 63. For stealing meat a vulture,
    for stealing fat a cormorant, for stealing oil a winged
    animal (of the kind called) Tailapaka, for stealing salt a
    cricket, for stealing sour milk a bird (of the kind called)
    Balaka. 64. For stealing silk a partridge, for stealing
    linen a frog, for stealing cotton-cloth a crane, for steal-
    ing a cow an iguana, for stealing molasses a
    65. For stealing ne perfumes a musk-rat, for stealing
    vegetables consisting of leaves a pea****, for stealing
    cooked food of various kinds a porcupine, for stealing
    uncooked food a hedgehog. 66. For stealing re he be-
    comes a heron, for stealing household-utensils a mason-
    wasp, for stealing dyed clothes a francolin-partridge; 67.
    For stealing a deer or an elephant a wolf, for stealing a
    horse a tiger, for stealing fruit and roots a monkey, for
    stealing a woman a bear, for stealing water a black-white
    cuckoo, for stealing vehicles a camel, for stealing cattle
    a he-goat. 68. That man who has forcibly taken away
    any kind of property belonging to another, or who has
    eaten sacri cial food (of) which (no portion) had been
    o ered, inevitably becomes an animal. 69. Women, also,
    who in like manner have committed a theft, shall incur
    guilt; they will become the females of those same crea-
    tures (which have been enumerated above). 70. But
    (men of the four) castes who have relinquished without
    the pressure of necessity their proper occupations, will
    become the servants of Dasyus, after migrating into de-
    spicable bodies. 71. A Brahmana who has fallen o from
    his duty (becomes) an Ulkamukha Preta, who feeds on
    what has been vomited; and a Kshatriya, a Kataputana
    (Preta), who eats impure substances and corpses. 72.
    A Vaisya who has fallen o from his duty becomes a
    Maitrakshagyotika Preta, who feeds on pus; and a Su-
    dra, a Kailasaka (Preta, who feeds on moths). 73. In
    proportion as sensual men indulge in sensual pleasures,
    in that same proportion their taste for them grows. 74.
    By repeating their sinful acts those men of small under-
    standing su er pain here (below) in various births; 75.
    (The torture of) being tossed about in dreadful hells,
    Tamisra and the rest, (that of) the Forest with sword-
    leaved trees and the like, and (that of) being bound and
    mangled; 76. And various torments, the (pain of) be-
    ing devoured by ravens and owls, the heat of scorching
    sand, and the (torture of) being boiled in jars, which is
    hard to bear; 77. And births in the wombs (of) despica-
    ble (beings) which cause constant misery, and aictions
    from cold and heat and terrors of various kinds, 78. The
    (pain of) repeatedly lying in various wombs and agoniz-
    ing births, imprisonment in fetters hard to bear, and the
    misery of being enslaved by others, 79. And separations
    from their relatives and dear ones, and the (pain of)
    dwelling together with the wicked, (labour in) gaining
    wealth and its loss, (trouble in) making friends and (the
    appearance of) enemies, 80. Old age against which there
    is no remedy, the pangs of diseases, aictions of many
    various kinds, and ( nally) unconquerable death. 81.
    But with whatever disposition of mind (a man) forms
    any act, he reaps its result in a (future) body endowed
    with the same quality.
    82. All the results, proceeding from actions, have
    been thus pointed out; learn (next) those acts which se-
    cure supreme bliss to a Brahmana. 83. Studying the
    Veda, (practising) austerities, (the acquisition of true)
    knowledge, the subjugation of the organs, abstention
    from doing injury, and serving the Guru are the best
    means for attaining supreme bliss. 84. (If you ask)
    whether among all these virtuous actions, (performed)
    here below, (there be) one which has been declared more
    ecacious (than the rest) for securing supreme happi-
    ness to man, 85. (The answer is that) the knowledge
    of the Soul is stated to be the most excellent among all
    of them; for that is the rst of all sciences, because im-
    mortality is gained through that. 86. Among those six
    (kinds of) actions (enumerated) above, the performance
    of) the acts taught in the Veda must ever be held to
    be most ecacious for ensuring happiness in this world
    and the next. 87. For in the performance of the acts
    prescribed by the Veda all those (others) are fully com-
    prised, (each) in its turn in the several rules for the rites.
    88. The acts prescribed by the Veda are of two kinds,
    such as procure an increase of happiness and cause a con-
    tinuation (of mundane existence, pravritta), and such as
    ensure supreme bliss and cause a cessation (of mundane
    existence, nivritta). 89. Acts which secure (the ful l-
    ment of) wishes in this world or in the next are called
    pravritta (such as cause a continuation of mundane exis-
    tence); but acts performed without any desire (for a re-
    ward), preceded by (the acquisition) of (true) knowledge,
    are declared to be nivritta (such as cause the cessation
    of mundane existence). 90. He who sedulously performs
    acts leading to future births (pravritta) becomes equal
    to the gods; but he who is intent on the performance
    of those causing the cessation (of existence, nivritta) in-
    deed, passes beyond (the reach of) the ve elements. 91.
    He who sacri ces to the Self (alone), equally recognising
    the Self in all created beings and all created beings in the
    Self, becomes (independent like) an autocrat and self-
    luminous. 92. After giving up even the above-mentioned
    sacri cial rites, a Brahmana should exert himself in (ac-
    quiring) the knowledge of the Soul, in extinguishing his
    passions, and in studying the Veda. 93. For that secures
    the attainment of the object of existence, especially in
    the case of a Brahmana, because by attaining that, not
    otherwise, a twice-born man has gained all his ends. 94.
    The Veda is the eternal eye of the manes, gods, and
    men; the Veda-ordinance (is) both beyond the sphere
    of (human) power, and beyond the sphere of (human)
    comprehension; that is a certain fact. 95. All those
    traditions (smriti) and those despicable systems of phi-
    losophy, which are not based on the Veda, produce no re-
    ward after death; for they are declared to be founded on
    Darkness. 96. All those (doctrines), di ering from the
    (Veda), which spring up and (soon) perish, are worth-
    less and false, because they are of modern date. 97. The
    four castes, the three worlds, the four orders, the past,
    the present, and the future are all severally known by
    means of the Veda. 98. Sound, touch, colour, taste, and
    fthly smell are known through the Veda alone, (their)
    production (is) through the (Vedic rites, which in this
    respect are) secondary acts. 99. The eternal lore of
    the Veda upholds all created beings; hence I hold that
    to be supreme, which is the means of (securing hap-
    piness to) these creatures. 100. Command of armies,
    royal authority, the oce of a judge, and sovereignty
    over the whole world he (only) deserves who knows the
    Veda-science. 101. As a re that has gained strength
    consumes even trees full of sap, even so he who knows
    the Veda burns out the taint of his soul which arises
    from (evil) acts. 102. In whatever order (a man) who
    knows the true meaning of the Veda-science may dwell,
    he becomes even while abiding in this world, t for the
    union with Brahman. 103. (Even forgetful) students of
    the (sacred) books are more distinguished than the igno-
    rant, those who remember them surpass the (forgetful)
    students, those who possess a knowledge (of the mean-
    ing) are more distinguished than those who (only) re-
    member (the words), men who follow(the teaching of the
    texts) surpass those who (merely) know (their meaning).
    104. Austerity and sacred learning are the best means
    by which a Brahmana secures supreme bliss; by aus-
    terities he destroys guilt, by sacred learning he obtains
    the cessation of (births and) deaths. 105. The three
    (kinds of evidence), perception, inference, and the (sa-
    cred) Institutes which comprise the tradition (of) many
    (schools), must be fully understood by him who desires
    perfect correctness with respect to the sacred law. 106.
    He alone, and no other man, knows the sacred law, who
    explores the (utterances) of the sages and the body of
    the laws, by (modes of) reasoning, not repugnant to the
    107. Thus the acts which secure supreme bliss have
    been exactly and fully described; (now) the secret por-
    tion of these Institutes, proclaimed by Manu, will be
    taught. 108. If it be asked how it should be with re-
    spect to (points of) the law which have not been (spe-
    cially) mentioned, (the answer is), 'that which Brah-
    manas (who are) Sishtas propound, shall doubtlessly
    have legal (force).' 109. Those Brahmanas must be
    considered as Sishtas who, in accordance with the sa-
    cred law, have studied the Veda together with its ap-
    pendages, and are able to adduce proofs perceptible by
    the senses from the revealed texts. 110. Whatever an
    assembly, consisting either of at least ten, or of at least
    three persons who follow their prescribed occupations,
    declares to be law, the legal (force of) that one must
    not dispute. 111. Three persons who each know one
    of the three principal Vedas, a logician, a Mimamsaka,
    one who knows the Nirukta, one who recites (the In-
    stitutes of) the sacred law, and three men belonging to
    the rst three orders shall constitute a (legal) assembly,
    consisting of at least ten members. 112. One who knows
    the Rig-veda, one who knows the Yagur-veda, and one
    who knows the Sama-veda, shall be known (to form) an
    assembly consisting of at least three members (and com-
    petent) to decide doubtful points of law. 113. Even that
    which one Brahmana versed in the Veda declares to be
    law, must be considered (to have) supreme legal (force,
    but) not that which is proclaimed by myriads of ignorant
    men. 114. Even if thousands of Brahmanas, who have
    not ful lled their sacred duties, are unacquainted with
    the Veda, and subsist only by the name of their caste,
    meet, they cannot (form) an assembly (for settling the
    sacred law). 115. The sin of him whom dunces, in-
    carnations of Darkness, and unacquainted with the law,
    instruct (in his duty), falls, increased a hundredfold, on
    those who propound it. 116. All that which is most
    ecacious for securing supreme bliss has been thus de-
    clared to you; a Brahmana who does not fall o from
    that obtains the most excellent state. 117. Thus did
    that worshipful deity disclose to me, through a desire
    of bene ting mankind, this whole most excellent secret
    of the sacred law. 118. Let (every Brahmana), concen-
    trating his mind, fully recognise in the Self all things,
    both the real and the unreal, for he who recognises the
    universe in the Self, does not give his heart to unrigh-
    teousness. 119. The Self alone is the multitude of the
    gods, the universe rests on the Self; for the Self produces
    the connexion of these embodied (spirits) with actions.
    120. Let him meditate on the ether as identical with
    the cavities (of the body), on the wind as identical with
    the organs of motions and of touch, on the most excel-
    lent light as the same with his digestive organs and his
    sight, on water as the same with the (corporeal)
    on the earth as the same with the solid parts (of his
    body); 121. On the moon as one with the internal or-
    gan, on the quarters of the horizon as one with his sense
    of hearing, on Vishnu as one with his (power of) motion,
    on Hara as the same with his strength, on Agni (Fire)
    as identical with his speech, on Mitra as identical with
    his excretions, and on Pragapati as one with his organ
    of generation. 122. Let him know the supreme Male
    (Purusha, to be) the sovereign ruler of them all, smaller
    even than small, bright like gold, and perceptible by the
    intellect (only when) in (a state of) sleep (-like abstrac-
    tion). 123. Some call him Agni (Fire), others Manu,
    the Lord of creatures, others Indra, others the vital air,
    and again others eternal Brahman. 124. He pervades all
    created beings in the ve forms, and constantly makes
    them, by means of birth, growth and decay, revolve like
    the wheels (of a chariot). 125. He who thus recognises
    the Self through the Self in all created beings, becomes
    equal (-minded) towards all, and enters the highest state,
    Brahman. 126. A twice-born man who recites these In-
    stitutes, revealed by Manu, will be always virtuous in
    conduct, and will reach whatever condition he desires.



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